OBJECTIVES To evaluate prospectively the clinical and radiographic outcomes after ten years of short (6 mm) implants with a moderately rough surface supporting single crowns in the posterior region. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty 6 mm modified sandblasted large-grit acid-etched (mod-SLA), soft tissue level implants were installed in the distal segments of 35 consecutive patients. After 6 weeks of healing, abutments were tightened, and single porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns were cemented. Implant survival, marginal bone loss, and clinical crown/implant ratio were evaluated at various time intervals up to 10 years after loading. RESULTS Two out of the 40 implants were lost before loading, one implant was lost after 7 years because of peri-implantitis. One patient with two implants died and was excluded from analysis. Two patients did not come at the 10-year follow-up and were considered as drop out (2 implants). The survival rate was 91.7% (n = 36). Thirty-three implants were available for marginal bone loss evaluation. A mean marginal bone loss after 10 years of function was 0.8 ± 0.7 mm. Between 5 and 10 years, the loss was 0.2 ± 0.4 mm. No technical complications were registered during the 10-year period. The clinical crown/implant ratio increased with time from 1.6 at the delivery of the prosthesis to 2.0 after 10 years of loading with no increase between 5 and 10 years. CONCLUSION Short (6 mm) implants with a moderately rough surface supporting single crowns in the posterior region and loaded after 6-7 weeks maintained full function for at least 10 years with low marginal bone resorption.