In recent exegesis, the Song of Songs has commonly been held not to be dramatic at all. This view stands in line with the notion that there is no drama in the Hebrew Bible. However, the concept of “drama” in literary and performance studies has evolved considerably in the past decades. As a consequence, the key question must be asked again: How can we identify a text as dramatic or oriented towards performance? To answer this, a threefold criteriology taken from contemporary literary studies is presented: Lexis, Opsis and Plot. These useful and rather universal criteria lead to a differentiated look at the “performance potential” of the book – and to the conclusion that the Song basically matches this criteriology. Furthermore, various clues are given that the book was indeed performed, at least from the Hellenistic period onward, to which the final redaction should be dated. As the collection of the biblical Writings needs to be understood against the background of a struggle with the predominant Alexandrian culture, the Song might represent a piece of Jewish dramatic or performance literature, or in other words, a Hebrew “counterweight” to Hellenistic drama in the Jewish literary canon of the Writings.