Human teeth have a limited capacity to regenerate and thus biological reconstruction of damaged or lost dental tissues remains a significant challange in modern dentistry. Recent efforts focus on alternative therapeutic approaches for partial or whole tooth regeneration that complement traditional dental treatments using sophisticated materials and dental implants. These multidisciplinary approaches are based on the combination of stem cells with advanced tissue engineer products and computing technology, and they hold great promise for future applications in dentistry. The administration to patients of dynamic biological agents composed by stem cells and scaffolds will certainly increase the regenerative capacity of dental pathological tissues. The design of innovative materials for tissue restoration, diagnostics, imaging, and targeted pharmaceutical treatment will significantly improve the quality of dental care and will have a major societal impact. This review depicts the current challenges in dentistry and describes the possibilities for novel and succesful therapeutic applications in the near future.