Traumatic injuries, genetic diseases, and external harmful agents such as bacteria and acids often compromise tooth integrity. There is an unmet medical need to develop alternative, innovative dental treatments that complement traditional restorative and surgery techniques. Stem cells have transformed the medical field in recent years. The combination of stem cells with bioactive scaffolds and nanostructured materials turns out to be increasingly beneficial in regenerative dental medicine. Stem cell-based regenerative approaches for the formation of dental tissues will significantly improve treatments and will have a major impact in dental practice. To date there is no established and reliable stem cell-based treatment translated into the dental clinics, however, the advances and improved technological knowledge are promising for successful dental therapies in the near future. Here, we review some of the contemporary challenges in dental medicine and describe the benefits and future possibilities of certain novel approaches in the emerging field of regenerative dentistry.