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Glucocorticoids and the Risk of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: Case-Control Analysis Based on Swiss Claims Data


Reinau, Daphne; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Früh, Mathias; Signorell, Andri; Blozik, Eva; Meier, Christoph R (2018). Glucocorticoids and the Risk of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: Case-Control Analysis Based on Swiss Claims Data. Drug Safety, 41(7):725-730.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION
Controversy exists as to whether glucocorticoids (GC) are ulcerogenic per se and may thus cause peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) independent of concomitantly prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the association between GC use and PUB with or without co-medication with NSAIDs.
METHODS
We conducted a case-control study using administrative claims data from the Swiss health insurance company Helsana. We identified 1191 cases with incident PUB between 2012 and 2016 and matched up to 10 PUB-free controls to each case on age, sex, region and number of years insured with Helsana. We compared prior GC exposure between cases and controls using multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses controlling for several potential confounders. Patients with or without concomitant NSAID exposure were analysed separately.
RESULTS
Patients with prior exposure to both GC and NSAIDs were five times more likely to experience PUB than patients who neither used GC nor NSAIDs (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] 4.80, 95% CI 3.55-6.71). Although the risk of PUB among patients who used NSAIDs without GC was increased threefold (adj. OR 3.20, 95% CI 2.59-3.95), we observed only a moderately increased risk among patients who used GC alone without NSAIDs (adj. OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20-2.42).
CONCLUSIONS
The use of NSAIDs with or without GC was associated with a markedly higher risk of PUB compared with GC monotherapy. Use of GC alone was associated with a moderately increased risk of PUB, which might be causal or attributed to confounding by indication.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION
Controversy exists as to whether glucocorticoids (GC) are ulcerogenic per se and may thus cause peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) independent of concomitantly prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the association between GC use and PUB with or without co-medication with NSAIDs.
METHODS
We conducted a case-control study using administrative claims data from the Swiss health insurance company Helsana. We identified 1191 cases with incident PUB between 2012 and 2016 and matched up to 10 PUB-free controls to each case on age, sex, region and number of years insured with Helsana. We compared prior GC exposure between cases and controls using multivariate conditional logistic regression analyses controlling for several potential confounders. Patients with or without concomitant NSAID exposure were analysed separately.
RESULTS
Patients with prior exposure to both GC and NSAIDs were five times more likely to experience PUB than patients who neither used GC nor NSAIDs (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] 4.80, 95% CI 3.55-6.71). Although the risk of PUB among patients who used NSAIDs without GC was increased threefold (adj. OR 3.20, 95% CI 2.59-3.95), we observed only a moderately increased risk among patients who used GC alone without NSAIDs (adj. OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20-2.42).
CONCLUSIONS
The use of NSAIDs with or without GC was associated with a markedly higher risk of PUB compared with GC monotherapy. Use of GC alone was associated with a moderately increased risk of PUB, which might be causal or attributed to confounding by indication.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:July 2018
Deposited On:04 Jan 2019 14:44
Last Modified:04 Jan 2019 14:53
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0114-5916
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-018-0645-3
PubMed ID:29468603

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