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Life-Threatening Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection With Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-Like Disease in GATA2 Haploinsufficiency Accompanied by Expansion of Double Negative T-Lymphocytes


Prader, Seraina; Felber, Matthias; Volkmer, Benjamin; Trück, Johannes; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Theiler, Martin; Weibel, Lisa; Hambleton, Sophie; Seipel, Katja; Vavassori, Stefano; Pachlopnik Schmid, Jana (2018). Life-Threatening Primary Varicella Zoster Virus Infection With Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-Like Disease in GATA2 Haploinsufficiency Accompanied by Expansion of Double Negative T-Lymphocytes. Frontiers in Immunology, 9:2766.

Abstract

Two unrelated patients with GATA2-haploinsufficiency developed a hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-like disease during a varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. High copy numbers of VZV were detected in the blood, and the patients were successfully treated with acyclovir and intravenous immunoglobulins. After treatment with corticosteroids for the HLH, both patients made a full recovery. Although the mechanisms leading to this disease constellation have yet to be characterized, we hypothesize that impairment of the immunoregulatory role of NK cells in GATA2-haploinsufficiency may have accentuated the patients' susceptibility to HLH. Expansion of a double negative T-lymphocytic population identified with CyTOF could be a further factor contributing to HLH in these patients. This is the first report of VZV-triggered HLH-like disease in a primary immunodeficiency and the third report of HLH in GATA2-haploinsufficiency. Since HLH was part of the presentation in one of our patients, GATA2-haploinsufficiency represents a potential differential diagnosis in patients presenting with the clinical features of HLH-especially in cases of persisting cytopenia after recovery from HLH.

Abstract

Two unrelated patients with GATA2-haploinsufficiency developed a hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-like disease during a varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. High copy numbers of VZV were detected in the blood, and the patients were successfully treated with acyclovir and intravenous immunoglobulins. After treatment with corticosteroids for the HLH, both patients made a full recovery. Although the mechanisms leading to this disease constellation have yet to be characterized, we hypothesize that impairment of the immunoregulatory role of NK cells in GATA2-haploinsufficiency may have accentuated the patients' susceptibility to HLH. Expansion of a double negative T-lymphocytic population identified with CyTOF could be a further factor contributing to HLH in these patients. This is the first report of VZV-triggered HLH-like disease in a primary immunodeficiency and the third report of HLH in GATA2-haploinsufficiency. Since HLH was part of the presentation in one of our patients, GATA2-haploinsufficiency represents a potential differential diagnosis in patients presenting with the clinical features of HLH-especially in cases of persisting cytopenia after recovery from HLH.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:28 Dec 2018 16:00
Last Modified:01 Jan 2019 15:38
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1664-3224
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02766
PubMed ID:30564229
Project Information:
  • : FunderSchwyzer-Winiker Foundation
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderHochspezialisierte Medizin Schwerpunkt Immunologie
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title
  • : FunderHelmut Horten Foundation
  • : Grant ID
  • : Project Title

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