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Guiding Ketogenic Diet with Breath Acetone Sensors


Güntner, Andreas T; Kompalla, Julia F; Landis, Henning; Theodore, S Jonathan; Geidl, Bettina; Sievi, Noriane A; Kohler, Malcolm; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Gerber, Philipp A (2018). Guiding Ketogenic Diet with Breath Acetone Sensors. Sensors, 18(11):3655.

Abstract

Ketogenic diet (KD; high fat, low carb) is a standard treatment for obesity, neurological diseases (e.g., refractory epilepsy) and a promising method for athletes to improve their endurance performance. Therein, the level of ketosis must be regulated tightly to ensure an effective therapy. Here, we introduce a compact and inexpensive breath sensor to monitor ketosis online and non-invasively. The sensor consists of Si-doped WO3 nanoparticles that detect breath acetone selectively with non-linear response characteristics in the relevant range of 1 to 66 ppm, as identified by mass spectrometry. When tested on eleven subjects (five women and six men) undergoing a 36-h KD based on the Johns Hopkins protocol, this sensor clearly recognizes the onset and progression of ketosis. This is in good agreement to capillary blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) measurements. Despite similar dieting conditions, strong inter-subject differences in ketosis dynamics were observed and correctly identified by the sensor. These even included breath acetone patterns that could be linked to low tolerance to that diet. As a result, this portable breath sensor represents an easily applicable and reliable technology to monitor KD, possibly during medical treatment of epilepsy and weight loss.

Abstract

Ketogenic diet (KD; high fat, low carb) is a standard treatment for obesity, neurological diseases (e.g., refractory epilepsy) and a promising method for athletes to improve their endurance performance. Therein, the level of ketosis must be regulated tightly to ensure an effective therapy. Here, we introduce a compact and inexpensive breath sensor to monitor ketosis online and non-invasively. The sensor consists of Si-doped WO3 nanoparticles that detect breath acetone selectively with non-linear response characteristics in the relevant range of 1 to 66 ppm, as identified by mass spectrometry. When tested on eleven subjects (five women and six men) undergoing a 36-h KD based on the Johns Hopkins protocol, this sensor clearly recognizes the onset and progression of ketosis. This is in good agreement to capillary blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) measurements. Despite similar dieting conditions, strong inter-subject differences in ketosis dynamics were observed and correctly identified by the sensor. These even included breath acetone patterns that could be linked to low tolerance to that diet. As a result, this portable breath sensor represents an easily applicable and reliable technology to monitor KD, possibly during medical treatment of epilepsy and weight loss.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Pneumology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Analytical Chemistry
Life Sciences > Biochemistry
Physical Sciences > Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
Physical Sciences > Instrumentation
Physical Sciences > Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords:Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Analytical Chemistry, Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics, Biochemistry
Language:English
Date:28 October 2018
Deposited On:04 Jan 2019 07:10
Last Modified:24 May 2020 11:32
Publisher:MDPI Publishing
ISSN:1424-8220
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/s18113655
PubMed ID:30373291
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID206021_170729
  • : Project TitleIntegrated system for in operando characterization and development of portable breath analyzers
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID200020_175754
  • : Project TitleFlame-made gas sensor arrays: Membrane-enhanced selectivity for breath analysis
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID200021_159763
  • : Project TitleNanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors for non-invasive disease detection by breath analysis

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