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Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy


Głobińska, Anna; Boonpiyathad, Tadech; Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn; Kleuskens, Mirelle; van de Veen, Willem; Sokolowska, Milena; Akdis, Mübeccel (2018). Mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotherapy. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 121(3):306-312.

Abstract

Objective The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy based on the recent publications and clinical trials. Data sources PubMed literature review. Study selections In this review, we focus on diverse mechanisms of AIT and provide an insight into alternative routes of administration. Additionally, we review and discuss the most recent studies investigating potential biomarkers and highlight their role in clinical settings. Results Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) induces the reinstatement of tolerance toward allergens and represents a disease-modifying treatment. In the last decades, substantial progress in understanding the mechanisms of AIT has been achieved. Establishment of long-term clinical tolerance to allergens engages a complex network of interactions, modulating the functions of basophils, mast cells, allergen-specific regulatory T and B cells, and production of specific antibodies. The reduction of symptoms and clinical improvement is achieved by skewing the immune response away from allergic inflammation. Conclusion Although the complex nature of AIT mechanisms is becoming more clear, the need to discover reliable biomarkers to define patients likely to respond to the treatment is emerging.

Abstract

Objective The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy based on the recent publications and clinical trials. Data sources PubMed literature review. Study selections In this review, we focus on diverse mechanisms of AIT and provide an insight into alternative routes of administration. Additionally, we review and discuss the most recent studies investigating potential biomarkers and highlight their role in clinical settings. Results Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) induces the reinstatement of tolerance toward allergens and represents a disease-modifying treatment. In the last decades, substantial progress in understanding the mechanisms of AIT has been achieved. Establishment of long-term clinical tolerance to allergens engages a complex network of interactions, modulating the functions of basophils, mast cells, allergen-specific regulatory T and B cells, and production of specific antibodies. The reduction of symptoms and clinical improvement is achieved by skewing the immune response away from allergic inflammation. Conclusion Although the complex nature of AIT mechanisms is becoming more clear, the need to discover reliable biomarkers to define patients likely to respond to the treatment is emerging.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Immunology and Allergy, Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 September 2018
Deposited On:09 Jan 2019 16:06
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:01
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1081-1206
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2018.06.026
PubMed ID:29966703

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