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Reference values for cardiometabolic risk scores in children and adolescents: Suggesting a common standard


Stavnsbo, Mette; Resaland, Geir K; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Domazet, Sidsel L; Skrede, Turid; Sardinha, Luis B; Kriemler, Susi; Ekelund, Ulf; Andersen, Lars B; Aadland, Eivind (2018). Reference values for cardiometabolic risk scores in children and adolescents: Suggesting a common standard. Atherosclerosis, 278:299-306.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS
International reference values for cardiometabolic risk variables, to allow for standardization of continuous risk scores in children, are not currently available. The aim of this study was to provide international age- and gender-specific reference values for cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.

METHODS
Cohorts of children sampled from different parts of Europe (North, South, Mid and Eastern) and from the United States were pooled. In total, 22,479 observations (48.7% European vs. 51.3% American), 11,234 from girls and 11,245 from boys, aged 6-18 years were included in the study. Linear mixed-model regression analysis was used to analyze the associations between age and each cardiometabolic risk factor.

RESULTS
Reference values for 14 of the most commonly used cardiometabolic risk variables in clustered risk scores were calculated and presented by age and gender: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), sum of 4 skinfolds (sum4skin), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC:HDL-C ratio, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-score (HOMA-score), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).

CONCLUSIONS
This study suggests a common standard to define cardiometabolic risk in children. Adapting this approach makes single risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic disease risk scores comparable to the reference material itself and comparable to cardiometabolic risk values in studies using the same strategy. This unified approach therefore increases the prospect to estimate and compare prevalence and trends of cardiometabolic risk in children when using continuous cardiometabolic risk scores.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS
International reference values for cardiometabolic risk variables, to allow for standardization of continuous risk scores in children, are not currently available. The aim of this study was to provide international age- and gender-specific reference values for cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents.

METHODS
Cohorts of children sampled from different parts of Europe (North, South, Mid and Eastern) and from the United States were pooled. In total, 22,479 observations (48.7% European vs. 51.3% American), 11,234 from girls and 11,245 from boys, aged 6-18 years were included in the study. Linear mixed-model regression analysis was used to analyze the associations between age and each cardiometabolic risk factor.

RESULTS
Reference values for 14 of the most commonly used cardiometabolic risk variables in clustered risk scores were calculated and presented by age and gender: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), sum of 4 skinfolds (sum4skin), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC:HDL-C ratio, glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment-score (HOMA-score), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).

CONCLUSIONS
This study suggests a common standard to define cardiometabolic risk in children. Adapting this approach makes single risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic disease risk scores comparable to the reference material itself and comparable to cardiometabolic risk values in studies using the same strategy. This unified approach therefore increases the prospect to estimate and compare prevalence and trends of cardiometabolic risk in children when using continuous cardiometabolic risk scores.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2018
Deposited On:04 Jan 2019 14:23
Last Modified:13 Oct 2019 05:54
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0021-9150
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.10.003
PubMed ID:30477756

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