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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients: a descriptive analysis for the Swiss Transplant Cohort


Neofytos, Dionysios; Hirzel, Cedric; Boely, Elsa; Lecompte, Thanh; Khanna, Nina; Mueller, Nicolas J; Boggian, Katia; Cusini, Alexia; Manuel, Oriol; van Delden, Christian; Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (2018). Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients: a descriptive analysis for the Swiss Transplant Cohort. Transplant Infectious Disease, 20(6):e12984.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Descriptive data on Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTr) in the era of routine Pneumocystis-prophylaxis are lacking. METHODS All adult SOTr between 2008 and 2016 were included. PJP was diagnosed based on consensus guidelines. Early-onset PJP was defined as PJP within the first-year-post-transplant. RESULTS 41/2842 SOTr (1.4%) developed PJP (incidence rate: 0.01/1000 person-days) at a mean of 493-days post-transplant: 21 (51.2%) early vs 20 (48.8%) late-onset PJP. 2465 (86.7%) SOTr received Pneumocystis-prophylaxis for a mean 316 days. PJP incidence was 0.001% and 0.003% (log-rank < 0.001) in SOTr with and without Pneumocystis-prophylaxis, respectively. PJP was an early event in 10/12 (83.3%) SOTr who did not receive Pneumocystis-prophylaxis and developed PJP, compared to those patients who received prophylaxis (11/29, 37.9%; P-value: 0.008). Among late-onset PJP patients, most cases (13/20, 65%) were observed during the 2nd year post-transplant. Age ≥65 years (OR: 2.4, P-value: 0.03) and CMV infection during the first 6 months post-SOT (OR: 2.5, P-value: 0.006) were significant PJP predictors, while Pneumocystis-prophylaxis was protective for PJP (OR: 0.3, P-value: 0.006) in the overall population. Most patients (35, 85.4%) were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a mean 20.6 days. 1-year mortality was 14.6%. CONCLUSIONS In the Pneumocystis-prophylaxis-era, PJP remains a rare post-transplant complication. Most cases occurred post-PJP-prophylaxis-discontinuation, particularly during the second-year-post-transplant. Additional research may help identify indications for Pneumocystis-prophylaxis prolongation.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Descriptive data on Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTr) in the era of routine Pneumocystis-prophylaxis are lacking. METHODS All adult SOTr between 2008 and 2016 were included. PJP was diagnosed based on consensus guidelines. Early-onset PJP was defined as PJP within the first-year-post-transplant. RESULTS 41/2842 SOTr (1.4%) developed PJP (incidence rate: 0.01/1000 person-days) at a mean of 493-days post-transplant: 21 (51.2%) early vs 20 (48.8%) late-onset PJP. 2465 (86.7%) SOTr received Pneumocystis-prophylaxis for a mean 316 days. PJP incidence was 0.001% and 0.003% (log-rank < 0.001) in SOTr with and without Pneumocystis-prophylaxis, respectively. PJP was an early event in 10/12 (83.3%) SOTr who did not receive Pneumocystis-prophylaxis and developed PJP, compared to those patients who received prophylaxis (11/29, 37.9%; P-value: 0.008). Among late-onset PJP patients, most cases (13/20, 65%) were observed during the 2nd year post-transplant. Age ≥65 years (OR: 2.4, P-value: 0.03) and CMV infection during the first 6 months post-SOT (OR: 2.5, P-value: 0.006) were significant PJP predictors, while Pneumocystis-prophylaxis was protective for PJP (OR: 0.3, P-value: 0.006) in the overall population. Most patients (35, 85.4%) were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a mean 20.6 days. 1-year mortality was 14.6%. CONCLUSIONS In the Pneumocystis-prophylaxis-era, PJP remains a rare post-transplant complication. Most cases occurred post-PJP-prophylaxis-discontinuation, particularly during the second-year-post-transplant. Additional research may help identify indications for Pneumocystis-prophylaxis prolongation.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Pneumology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:December 2018
Deposited On:03 Jan 2019 12:07
Last Modified:29 Apr 2019 07:01
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1398-2273
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/tid.12984
PubMed ID:30155950

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