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Distinct domains of the AVRPM3A2/F2 avirulence protein from wheat powdery mildew are involved in immune receptor recognition and putative effector function


McNally, Kaitlin Elyse; Menardo, Fabrizio; Lüthi, Linda; Praz, Coraline Rosalie; Müller, Marion Claudia; Kunz, Lukas; Ben-David, Roi; Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Dinoor, Amos; Cowger, Christina; Meyers, Emily; Xue, Mingfeng; Zeng, Fangsong; Gong, Shuangjun; Yu, Dazhao; Bourras, Salim; Keller, Beat (2018). Distinct domains of the AVRPM3A2/F2 avirulence protein from wheat powdery mildew are involved in immune receptor recognition and putative effector function. New Phytologist, 218(2):681-695.

Abstract

Recognition of the AVRPM3A2/F2 avirulence protein from powdery mildew by the wheat PM3A/F immune receptor induces a hypersensitive response after co‐expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The molecular determinants of this interaction and how they shape natural AvrPm3a2/f2 allelic diversity are unknown. We sequenced the AvrPm3a2/f2 gene in a worldwide collection of 272 mildew isolates. Using the natural polymorphisms of AvrPm3a2/f2 as well as sequence information from related gene family members, we tested 85 single‐residue‐altered AVRPM3A2/F2 variants with PM3A, PM3F and PM3FL456P/Y458H (modified for improved signaling) in Nicotiana benthamiana for effects on recognition. An intact AvrPm3a2/f2 gene was found in all analyzed isolates and the protein variant recognized by PM3A/F occurred globally at high frequencies. Single‐residue alterations in AVRPM3A2/F2 mostly disrupted, but occasionally enhanced, the recognition response by PM3A, PM3F and PM3FL456P/Y458H. Residues enhancing hypersensitive responses constituted a protein domain separate from both naturally occurring polymorphisms and positively selected residues of the gene family. These results demonstrate the utility of using gene family sequence diversity to screen residues for their role in recognition. This approach identified a putative interaction surface in AVRPM3A2/F2 not polymorphic in natural alleles. We conclude that molecular mechanisms besides recognition drive AvrPm3a2/f2 diversification.

Abstract

Recognition of the AVRPM3A2/F2 avirulence protein from powdery mildew by the wheat PM3A/F immune receptor induces a hypersensitive response after co‐expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The molecular determinants of this interaction and how they shape natural AvrPm3a2/f2 allelic diversity are unknown. We sequenced the AvrPm3a2/f2 gene in a worldwide collection of 272 mildew isolates. Using the natural polymorphisms of AvrPm3a2/f2 as well as sequence information from related gene family members, we tested 85 single‐residue‐altered AVRPM3A2/F2 variants with PM3A, PM3F and PM3FL456P/Y458H (modified for improved signaling) in Nicotiana benthamiana for effects on recognition. An intact AvrPm3a2/f2 gene was found in all analyzed isolates and the protein variant recognized by PM3A/F occurred globally at high frequencies. Single‐residue alterations in AVRPM3A2/F2 mostly disrupted, but occasionally enhanced, the recognition response by PM3A, PM3F and PM3FL456P/Y458H. Residues enhancing hypersensitive responses constituted a protein domain separate from both naturally occurring polymorphisms and positively selected residues of the gene family. These results demonstrate the utility of using gene family sequence diversity to screen residues for their role in recognition. This approach identified a putative interaction surface in AVRPM3A2/F2 not polymorphic in natural alleles. We conclude that molecular mechanisms besides recognition drive AvrPm3a2/f2 diversification.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Plant Science, Physiology
Language:English
Date:1 April 2018
Deposited On:10 Jan 2019 12:43
Last Modified:10 Jan 2019 12:48
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0028-646X
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15026

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