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A chromosome-scale genome assembly reveals a highly dynamic effector repertoire of wheat powdery mildew


Müller, Marion C; Praz, Coraline R; Sotiropoulos, Alexandros G; Menardo, Fabrizio; Kunz, Lukas; Schudel, Seraina; Oberhänsli, Simone; Poretti, Manuel; Wehrli, Andreas; Bourras, Salim; Keller, Beat; Wicker, Thomas (2019). A chromosome-scale genome assembly reveals a highly dynamic effector repertoire of wheat powdery mildew. New Phytologist, 221(4):2176-2189.

Abstract

Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (B.g. tritici) is the causal agent of the wheat powdery mildew disease. The highly fragmented B.g. tritici genome available so far has prevented a systematic analysis of effector genes that are known to be involved in host adaptation. To study the diversity and evolution of effector genes we produced a chromosome‐scale assembly of the B.g. tritici genome. The genome assembly and annotation was achieved by combining long‐read sequencing with high‐density genetic mapping, bacterial artificial chromosome fingerprinting and transcriptomics. We found that the 166.6 Mb B.g. tritici genome encodes 844 candidate effector genes, over 40% more than previously reported. Candidate effector genes have characteristic local genomic organization such as gene clustering and enrichment for recombination‐active regions and certain transposable element families. A large group of 412 candidate effector genes shows high plasticity in terms of copy number variation in a global set of 36 isolates and of transcription levels. Our data suggest that copy number variation and transcriptional flexibility are the main drivers for adaptation in B.g. tritici. The high repeat content may play a role in providing a genomic environment that allows rapid evolution of effector genes with selection as the driving force.

Abstract

Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (B.g. tritici) is the causal agent of the wheat powdery mildew disease. The highly fragmented B.g. tritici genome available so far has prevented a systematic analysis of effector genes that are known to be involved in host adaptation. To study the diversity and evolution of effector genes we produced a chromosome‐scale assembly of the B.g. tritici genome. The genome assembly and annotation was achieved by combining long‐read sequencing with high‐density genetic mapping, bacterial artificial chromosome fingerprinting and transcriptomics. We found that the 166.6 Mb B.g. tritici genome encodes 844 candidate effector genes, over 40% more than previously reported. Candidate effector genes have characteristic local genomic organization such as gene clustering and enrichment for recombination‐active regions and certain transposable element families. A large group of 412 candidate effector genes shows high plasticity in terms of copy number variation in a global set of 36 isolates and of transcription levels. Our data suggest that copy number variation and transcriptional flexibility are the main drivers for adaptation in B.g. tritici. The high repeat content may play a role in providing a genomic environment that allows rapid evolution of effector genes with selection as the driving force.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
08 Research Priority Programs > Evolution in Action: From Genomes to Ecosystems
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Plant Science, Physiology
Language:English
Date:1 March 2019
Deposited On:10 Jan 2019 11:05
Last Modified:01 Mar 2020 13:27
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0028-646X
OA Status:Green
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15529
PubMed ID:30388298

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