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Urea cycle disorders in India: clinical course, biochemical and genetic investigations, and prenatal testing.


Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Häberle, Johannes; Jalan, Anil B; Puri, Ratna Dua; Kohli, Sudha; Kudalkar, Ketki; Rüfenacht, Véronique; Gupta, Deepti; Maurya, Deepshikha; Verma, Jyotsna; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Saxena, Renu; Verma, Ishwar C (2018). Urea cycle disorders in India: clinical course, biochemical and genetic investigations, and prenatal testing. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 13:174.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are inherited metabolic disorders that present with hyperammonemia, and cause significant mortality and morbidity in infants and children. These disorders are not well reported in the Indian population, due to lack of a thorough study of the clinical and molecular profile.
RESULTS: We present data from two major metabolic centres in India, including 123 cases of various UCDs. The majority of them (72/123, 58%) presented in the neonatal period (before 30 days of age) with 88% on or before day 7 of life (classical presentation), and had a high mortality (64/72, 88%). Citrullinemia type 1 was the most common UCD, observed in 61/123 patients. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency was the next most common, seen in 24 cases. Argininosuccinic aciduria was diagnosed in 20 cases. Deficiencies of arginase, N-acetylglutamate synthase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, citrin, and lysinuric protein intolerance were also observed. Molecular genetic analysis revealed two common ASS1 mutations: c.470G > A (p.Arg157His) and c.1168G > A (p.Gly390Arg) (36 of 55 tested patients). In addition, few recurrent point mutations in ASL gene, and a deletion of the whole OTC gene were also noted. A total of 24 novel mutations were observed in the various genes studied. We observed a poor clinical outcome with an overall all time mortality of 63% (70/110 cases with a known follow-up), and disability in 70% (28/40) among the survivors. Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 30 pregnancies in 25 families, including one pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the occurrence of UCDs in India and the spectrum that may be different from the rest of the world. Citrullinemia type 1 was the most common UCD observed in the cohort. Increasing awareness amongst clinicians will improve outcomes through early diagnosis and timely treatment. Genetic diagnosis in the proband will enable prenatal/pre-implantation diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are inherited metabolic disorders that present with hyperammonemia, and cause significant mortality and morbidity in infants and children. These disorders are not well reported in the Indian population, due to lack of a thorough study of the clinical and molecular profile.
RESULTS: We present data from two major metabolic centres in India, including 123 cases of various UCDs. The majority of them (72/123, 58%) presented in the neonatal period (before 30 days of age) with 88% on or before day 7 of life (classical presentation), and had a high mortality (64/72, 88%). Citrullinemia type 1 was the most common UCD, observed in 61/123 patients. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency was the next most common, seen in 24 cases. Argininosuccinic aciduria was diagnosed in 20 cases. Deficiencies of arginase, N-acetylglutamate synthase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, citrin, and lysinuric protein intolerance were also observed. Molecular genetic analysis revealed two common ASS1 mutations: c.470G > A (p.Arg157His) and c.1168G > A (p.Gly390Arg) (36 of 55 tested patients). In addition, few recurrent point mutations in ASL gene, and a deletion of the whole OTC gene were also noted. A total of 24 novel mutations were observed in the various genes studied. We observed a poor clinical outcome with an overall all time mortality of 63% (70/110 cases with a known follow-up), and disability in 70% (28/40) among the survivors. Prenatal diagnosis was performed in 30 pregnancies in 25 families, including one pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.
CONCLUSIONS: We report the occurrence of UCDs in India and the spectrum that may be different from the rest of the world. Citrullinemia type 1 was the most common UCD observed in the cohort. Increasing awareness amongst clinicians will improve outcomes through early diagnosis and timely treatment. Genetic diagnosis in the proband will enable prenatal/pre-implantation diagnosis in subsequent pregnancies.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 October 2018
Deposited On:15 Jan 2019 13:23
Last Modified:15 Jan 2019 13:26
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1750-1172
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13023-018-0908-1
PubMed ID:30285816

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