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Highly modified and immunoactive N-glycans of the canine heartworm


Abstract

The canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a mosquito-borne parasitic nematode whose range is extending due to climate change. In a four-dimensional analysis involving HPLC, MALDI-TOF-MS and MS/MS in combination with chemical and enzymatic digestions, we here reveal an N-glycome of unprecedented complexity. We detect N-glycans of up to 7000 Da, which contain long fucosylated HexNAc-based repeats, as well as glucuronylated structures. While some modifications including LacdiNAc, chitobiose, α1,3-fucose and phosphorylcholine are familiar, anionic N-glycans have previously not been reported in nematodes. Glycan array data show that the neutral glycans are preferentially recognised by IgM in dog sera or by mannose binding lectin when antennal fucose and phosphorylcholine residues are removed; this pattern of reactivity is reversed for mammalian C-reactive protein, which can in turn be bound by the complement component C1q. Thereby, the N-glycans of D. immitis contain features which may either mediate immunomodulation of the host or confer the ability to avoid immune surveillance.

Abstract

The canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a mosquito-borne parasitic nematode whose range is extending due to climate change. In a four-dimensional analysis involving HPLC, MALDI-TOF-MS and MS/MS in combination with chemical and enzymatic digestions, we here reveal an N-glycome of unprecedented complexity. We detect N-glycans of up to 7000 Da, which contain long fucosylated HexNAc-based repeats, as well as glucuronylated structures. While some modifications including LacdiNAc, chitobiose, α1,3-fucose and phosphorylcholine are familiar, anionic N-glycans have previously not been reported in nematodes. Glycan array data show that the neutral glycans are preferentially recognised by IgM in dog sera or by mannose binding lectin when antennal fucose and phosphorylcholine residues are removed; this pattern of reactivity is reversed for mammalian C-reactive protein, which can in turn be bound by the complement component C1q. Thereby, the N-glycans of D. immitis contain features which may either mediate immunomodulation of the host or confer the ability to avoid immune surveillance.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Parasitology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Parasitology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
600 Technology
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > General Chemistry
Life Sciences > General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Physical Sciences > General Physics and Astronomy
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Physics and Astronomy, General Chemistry
Language:English
Date:2019
Deposited On:15 Jan 2019 11:13
Last Modified:15 Apr 2020 22:40
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:2041-1723
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07948-7
PubMed ID:30622255

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