Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

The etiology of hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at dental implants: A narrative review


Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Tarnow, Dennis (2018). The etiology of hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at dental implants: A narrative review. Journal of Periodontology, 89:S291-S303.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
The objective of the present paper was to review factors and conditions that are associated with hard and soft-tissue deficiencies at implant sites.
IMPORTANCE:
Hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at dental implants are common clinical findings. They can lead to complications and compromise implant survival and, hence, may require therapeutic interventions. It is, therefore, important to understand the etiology of hard and soft-tissue deficiencies. Based on this understanding, strategies should be developed to correct hard and soft-tissue deficiencies with the aim of improving clinical outcomes of implant therapy.
FINDINGS:
A large number of etiological factors have been identified that may lead to hard and soft-tissue deficiencies. These factors include: 1) systemic diseases and conditions of the patients; 2) systemic medications; 3) processes of tissue healing; 4) tissue turnover and tissue response to clinical interventions; 5) trauma to orofacial structures; 6) local diseases affecting the teeth, the periodontium, the bone and the mucosa; 7) biomechanical factors; 8) tissue morphology and tissue phenotype; and 9) iatrogenic factors. These factors may appear as an isolated cause of hard and soft-tissue defects or may appear in conjunction with other factors.
CONCLUSIONS:
Hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at implant sites may result from a multitude of factors. They encompass natural resorption processes following tooth extraction, trauma, infectious diseases such as periodontitis, peri-implantitis, endodontic infections, growth and development, expansion of the sinus floor, anatomical preconditions, mechanical overload, thin soft tissues, lack of keratinized mucosa, malpositioning of implants, migration of teeth, lifelong growth, and systemic diseases. When more than one factor leading to hard and/or soft-tissue deficiencies appear together, the severity of the resulting condition may increase. Efforts should be made to better identify the relative importance of these etiological factors, and to develop strategies to counteract their negative effects on our patient's wellbeing.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:
The objective of the present paper was to review factors and conditions that are associated with hard and soft-tissue deficiencies at implant sites.
IMPORTANCE:
Hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at dental implants are common clinical findings. They can lead to complications and compromise implant survival and, hence, may require therapeutic interventions. It is, therefore, important to understand the etiology of hard and soft-tissue deficiencies. Based on this understanding, strategies should be developed to correct hard and soft-tissue deficiencies with the aim of improving clinical outcomes of implant therapy.
FINDINGS:
A large number of etiological factors have been identified that may lead to hard and soft-tissue deficiencies. These factors include: 1) systemic diseases and conditions of the patients; 2) systemic medications; 3) processes of tissue healing; 4) tissue turnover and tissue response to clinical interventions; 5) trauma to orofacial structures; 6) local diseases affecting the teeth, the periodontium, the bone and the mucosa; 7) biomechanical factors; 8) tissue morphology and tissue phenotype; and 9) iatrogenic factors. These factors may appear as an isolated cause of hard and soft-tissue defects or may appear in conjunction with other factors.
CONCLUSIONS:
Hard- and soft-tissue deficiencies at implant sites may result from a multitude of factors. They encompass natural resorption processes following tooth extraction, trauma, infectious diseases such as periodontitis, peri-implantitis, endodontic infections, growth and development, expansion of the sinus floor, anatomical preconditions, mechanical overload, thin soft tissues, lack of keratinized mucosa, malpositioning of implants, migration of teeth, lifelong growth, and systemic diseases. When more than one factor leading to hard and/or soft-tissue deficiencies appear together, the severity of the resulting condition may increase. Efforts should be made to better identify the relative importance of these etiological factors, and to develop strategies to counteract their negative effects on our patient's wellbeing.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
28 citations in Web of Science®
24 citations in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

2 downloads since deposited on 25 Jan 2019
0 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Dental Medicine > Clinic of Reconstructive Dentistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Periodontics
Uncontrolled Keywords:Periodontics
Language:English
Date:1 June 2018
Deposited On:25 Jan 2019 15:06
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 09:00
Publisher:American Academy of Periodontology
ISSN:0022-3492
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/jper.16-0810
PubMed ID:29926950

Download

Closed Access: Download allowed only for UZH members