AIM: We want to evaluate the relationship of self-assessed experience and proficiency, manual dexterity and visual-spatial ability with surgical performance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 26 professionals were included in the study which consisted of four parts: (a) self-assessment by a questionnaire regarding proficiency and experience, (b) evaluation of visual-spatial ability, (c) testing of manual dexterity assessed by validated psychomotor tests and (d) evaluation of surgical performance by Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). RESULTS: Self-assessed proficiency and experience levels did not correlate with objectively evaluated surgical performances (OSATS). However, low-level visual-spatial ability tests strongly correlated with OSATS while intermediate- and high-level tests did not. No correlation was found between psychomotor ability and clinical performance. CONCLUSIONS: Self-assessed proficiency is not a good predictor for surgical performance as experts tend to be overconfident. To evaluate and predict surgical performance, visual-spatial ability tests seem to be more appropriate than measuring manual dexterity which failed to correlate with the surgical outcome.