Observation-based frameworks of instructional quality differ largely in the approach and the purposes of their development, their theoretical underpinnings, the instructional aspects covered, their operationalization and measurement, as well as the existing evidence on reliability and validity. The current paper summarizes and reflects on these differences by considering the 12 frameworks included in this special issue. By comparing the analysis of three focal mathematics lessons through the lens of each framework as presented in the preceding papers, this paper also examines the similarities, differences, and potential complementarities of these frameworks to describe and evaluate mathematics instruction. To do so, a common structure for comparing all frameworks is suggested and applied to the analyses of the three selected lessons. The paper concludes that although significant work has been pursued over the past years in exploring instructional quality through classroom observation frameworks, the field would benefit from establishing agreed-upon standards for understanding and studying instructional quality, as well as from more collaborative work.