S100 proteins are members of the superfamily of Ca2+-binding proteins characterized by the specific Ca2+-binding motif, the EF-hand. Proteins of this superfamily are of clinical use as important diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in adult and pediatric Laboratory Medicine. For example, measurements of troponin are nowadays the 'gold standard' in the diagnosis of patients with acute coronary syndrome. Parvalbumins were identified as major fish allergens and blocking antibodies, induced by immunization with a hypoallergenic parvalbumin mutant, were shown to reduce allergic symptoms. Mutations in calmodulin are linked to inherited ventricular tachycardia, and cardiac arrhythmias. S100 proteins, the largest sub-group within the EF-hand protein family, are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, various types of cancer, inflammation and autoimmune pathologies and brain diseases. The intention of this review is to focus on the clinical use of S100 proteins as biomarkers and potential drug targets helping to improve the diagnosis of these human diseases in children and adults leading to more selective therapeutic interventions.