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Combined nitrous oxide 70% with intranasal fentanyl for procedural analgosedation in children: a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial


Seiler, Michelle; Staubli, Georg; Landolt, Markus A (2019). Combined nitrous oxide 70% with intranasal fentanyl for procedural analgosedation in children: a prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Emergency Medicine Journal, 36:142-147.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Nitrous oxide 70% (NO 70%) is an excellent medication for procedural analgosedation (PAS), yet the limit of its analgesic power remains uncertain; therefore, a combination with intranasal fentanyl (INF) was suggested. However, this combination seems to result in a higher rate of vomiting and deeper sedation. This study aimed at assessing the analgesic efficacy, sedation depth and rate of adverse events of PAS with NO 70% with and without INF.

METHODS: Patients aged 2-16 years who qualified for PAS with NO 70% were randomly assigned to receive either INF or placebo prior to NO inhalation in this randomised, double-blind study, which was performed in a tertiary children's hospital ED between September 2015 and October 2017. Behaviour during the procedure was evaluated using the Face, Leg, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale and the Modified Behavioural Pain Scale (MBPS); analgesic efficacy was assessed with a self-reported pain scale. Sedation depth using the validated University of Michigan Sedation Scale and adverse events in the ED and during the following 12 hours were documented.

RESULTS: A total of 402 patients were included; 3 did not tolerate NO and therefore had to be excluded. Overall, 399 patients were analysed, of whom 201 (50.4%) received INF. No significant group differences with regard to FLACC scale score, self-reported pain, MBPS score and sedation depth were found. In addition, the two groups did not differ with regard to all types of adverse events.

CONCLUSION: Combining NO 70% with INF resulted in no differences with regard to FLACC scale score, self-reported pain, MBPS score, patient and parental satisfaction rate, sedation depth, and adverse events.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02533908

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Nitrous oxide 70% (NO 70%) is an excellent medication for procedural analgosedation (PAS), yet the limit of its analgesic power remains uncertain; therefore, a combination with intranasal fentanyl (INF) was suggested. However, this combination seems to result in a higher rate of vomiting and deeper sedation. This study aimed at assessing the analgesic efficacy, sedation depth and rate of adverse events of PAS with NO 70% with and without INF.

METHODS: Patients aged 2-16 years who qualified for PAS with NO 70% were randomly assigned to receive either INF or placebo prior to NO inhalation in this randomised, double-blind study, which was performed in a tertiary children's hospital ED between September 2015 and October 2017. Behaviour during the procedure was evaluated using the Face, Leg, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale and the Modified Behavioural Pain Scale (MBPS); analgesic efficacy was assessed with a self-reported pain scale. Sedation depth using the validated University of Michigan Sedation Scale and adverse events in the ED and during the following 12 hours were documented.

RESULTS: A total of 402 patients were included; 3 did not tolerate NO and therefore had to be excluded. Overall, 399 patients were analysed, of whom 201 (50.4%) received INF. No significant group differences with regard to FLACC scale score, self-reported pain, MBPS score and sedation depth were found. In addition, the two groups did not differ with regard to all types of adverse events.

CONCLUSION: Combining NO 70% with INF resulted in no differences with regard to FLACC scale score, self-reported pain, MBPS score, patient and parental satisfaction rate, sedation depth, and adverse events.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02533908

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Emergency Medicine
Health Sciences > Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Language:English
Date:10 January 2019
Deposited On:16 Jan 2019 15:48
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 09:08
Publisher:BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN:1472-0205
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2018-207892
PubMed ID:30630844

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