Antibody responses to Mycoplasma pneumoniae correlate with pulmonary M. pneumoniae clearance. However, M. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibodies can cross-react with the myelin glycolipid galactocerebroside (GalC) and cause neurological disorders. We assessed whether antiglycolipid antibody formation is part of the physiological immune response to M. pneumoniae We show that antibodies against M. pneumoniae proteins and glycolipids arise in serum of M. pneumoniae-infected children and mice. Although antibodies to M. pneumoniae glycolipids were mainly IgG, anti-GalC antibodies were only IgM. B-1a cells, shown to aid in protection against pathogen-derived glycolipids, are lacking in Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk)-deficient mice. M. pneumoniae-infected Btk-deficient mice developed M. pneumoniae-specific IgG responses to M. pneumoniae proteins but not to M. pneumoniae glycolipids, including GalC. The equal recovery from M. pneumoniae infection in Btk-deficient and wild-type mice suggests that pulmonary M. pneumoniae clearance is predominantly mediated by IgG reactive with M. pneumoniae proteins and that M. pneumoniae glycolipid-specific IgG or IgM is not essential. These data will guide the development of M. pneumoniae-targeting vaccines that avoid the induction of neurotoxic antibodies.