Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Neuromotor development in children. Part 4: new norms from 3 to 18 years


Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Knaier, Elisa; Chaouch, Aziz; Caflisch, Jon; Rousson, Valentin; Largo, Remo H; Jenni, Oskar G (2018). Neuromotor development in children. Part 4: new norms from 3 to 18 years. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 60(8):810-819.

Abstract

AIM The aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide normative data for motor proficiency (motor performance and contralateral associated movements [CAMs]) in typically developing children between 3 years and 18 years of age using an updated version of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA-2).
METHOD Six-hundred and sixteen typically developing children between 3 years and 18 years of age were enrolled from day-care centres, kindergartens, and schools, and were tested using the ZNA-2 with improved items of the original battery. Motor proficiency was assessed on five components (fine motor tasks, pure motor tasks, static balance, dynamic balance, and CAMs) as a function of age and sex to determine centile curves for each task. Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reliabilities were evaluated.
RESULTS Most ZNA-2 tasks featured a marked developmental trend and substantial interindividual variability. Test-retest reliability was generally high (e.g. static balance 0.67; CAMs 0.81; and total scores 0.84).
INTERPRETATION The ZNA-2 is a reliable and updated test instrument to measure motor proficiency in children from 3 to 18 years with improved properties for assessing motor performance. It allows continuous measurement without changing items for the entire age range; this feature of the ZNA-2 is unique and makes the instrument suitable for clinical purposes. The reduction of CAMs scoring simplifies the clinical procedure and increases its reliability.
WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment, Second Edition (ZNA-2) provides new norms for motor proficiency in children between 3 years and 18 years. High reliabilities suggest that the revised test battery is a useful tool for assessing neuromotor development. Integration of a 'not able to perform' category makes the ZNA-2 suitable for clinical purposes.

Abstract

AIM The aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide normative data for motor proficiency (motor performance and contralateral associated movements [CAMs]) in typically developing children between 3 years and 18 years of age using an updated version of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA-2).
METHOD Six-hundred and sixteen typically developing children between 3 years and 18 years of age were enrolled from day-care centres, kindergartens, and schools, and were tested using the ZNA-2 with improved items of the original battery. Motor proficiency was assessed on five components (fine motor tasks, pure motor tasks, static balance, dynamic balance, and CAMs) as a function of age and sex to determine centile curves for each task. Intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reliabilities were evaluated.
RESULTS Most ZNA-2 tasks featured a marked developmental trend and substantial interindividual variability. Test-retest reliability was generally high (e.g. static balance 0.67; CAMs 0.81; and total scores 0.84).
INTERPRETATION The ZNA-2 is a reliable and updated test instrument to measure motor proficiency in children from 3 to 18 years with improved properties for assessing motor performance. It allows continuous measurement without changing items for the entire age range; this feature of the ZNA-2 is unique and makes the instrument suitable for clinical purposes. The reduction of CAMs scoring simplifies the clinical procedure and increases its reliability.
WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment, Second Edition (ZNA-2) provides new norms for motor proficiency in children between 3 years and 18 years. High reliabilities suggest that the revised test battery is a useful tool for assessing neuromotor development. Integration of a 'not able to perform' category makes the ZNA-2 suitable for clinical purposes.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
1 citation in Web of Science®
1 citation in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Downloads

6 downloads since deposited on 05 Feb 2019
6 downloads since 12 months
Detailed statistics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:August 2018
Deposited On:05 Feb 2019 13:51
Last Modified:05 Feb 2019 13:53
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0012-1622
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.13793
PubMed ID:29732550

Download

Download PDF  'Neuromotor development in children. Part 4: new norms from 3 to 18 years'.
Preview
Content: Published Version
Filetype: PDF
Size: 739kB
View at publisher
Licence: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)