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Cross-species hybridization and the origin of North African date palms


Flowers, Jonathan M; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Gros-Balthazard, Muriel; Mo, Ziyi; Koutroumpa, Konstantina; Perrakis, Andreas; Ferrand, Sylvie; Khierallah, Hussam S M; Fuller, Dorian Q; Aberlenc, Frederique; Fournaraki, Christini; Purugganan, Michael D (2019). Cross-species hybridization and the origin of North African date palms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(5):1651-1658.

Abstract

Date palm (<jats:italic>Phoenix dactylifera</jats:italic> L.) is a major fruit crop of arid regions that were domesticated ∼7,000 y ago in the Near or Middle East. This species is cultivated widely in the Middle East and North Africa, and previous population genetic studies have shown genetic differentiation between these regions. We investigated the evolutionary history of <jats:italic>P. dactylifera</jats:italic> and its wild relatives by resequencing the genomes of date palm varieties and five of its closest relatives. Our results indicate that the North African population has mixed ancestry with components from Middle Eastern <jats:italic>P. dactylifera</jats:italic> and <jats:italic>Phoenix theophrasti</jats:italic>, a wild relative endemic to the Eastern Mediterranean. Introgressive hybridization is supported by tests of admixture, reduced subdivision between North African date palm and <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic>, sharing of haplotypes in introgressed regions, and a population model that incorporates gene flow between these populations. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicates that as much as 18% of the genome of North African varieties can be traced to <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic> and a large percentage of loci in this population are segregating for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are fixed in <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic> and absent from date palm in the Middle East. We present a survey of <jats:italic>Phoenix</jats:italic> remains in the archaeobotanical record which supports a late arrival of date palm to North Africa. Our results suggest that hybridization with <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic> was of central importance in the diversification history of the cultivated date palm.

Abstract

Date palm (<jats:italic>Phoenix dactylifera</jats:italic> L.) is a major fruit crop of arid regions that were domesticated ∼7,000 y ago in the Near or Middle East. This species is cultivated widely in the Middle East and North Africa, and previous population genetic studies have shown genetic differentiation between these regions. We investigated the evolutionary history of <jats:italic>P. dactylifera</jats:italic> and its wild relatives by resequencing the genomes of date palm varieties and five of its closest relatives. Our results indicate that the North African population has mixed ancestry with components from Middle Eastern <jats:italic>P. dactylifera</jats:italic> and <jats:italic>Phoenix theophrasti</jats:italic>, a wild relative endemic to the Eastern Mediterranean. Introgressive hybridization is supported by tests of admixture, reduced subdivision between North African date palm and <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic>, sharing of haplotypes in introgressed regions, and a population model that incorporates gene flow between these populations. Analysis of ancestry proportions indicates that as much as 18% of the genome of North African varieties can be traced to <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic> and a large percentage of loci in this population are segregating for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are fixed in <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic> and absent from date palm in the Middle East. We present a survey of <jats:italic>Phoenix</jats:italic> remains in the archaeobotanical record which supports a late arrival of date palm to North Africa. Our results suggest that hybridization with <jats:italic>P. theophrasti</jats:italic> was of central importance in the diversification history of the cultivated date palm.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Multidisciplinary
Uncontrolled Keywords:Multidisciplinary
Language:English
Date:29 January 2019
Deposited On:12 Feb 2019 11:55
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 09:16
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1817453116

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