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Altered Left Ventricular Geometry and Torsional Mechanics in High Altitude-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension: A Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Study


De Boeck, Bart W; Toma, Aurel; Kiencke, Stephanie; Dehnert, Christoph; Zügel, Stefanie; Siebenmann, Christoph; Auinger, Katja; Buser, Peter T; Maggiorini, Marco; Kaufmann, Beat A (2018). Altered Left Ventricular Geometry and Torsional Mechanics in High Altitude-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension: A Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Study. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 31(3):314-322.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Changes in left ventricular (LV) torsion have been related to LV geometry in patients with concomitant long-standing myocardial disease or pulmonary hypertension (PH). We evaluated the effect of acute high altitude-induced isolated PH on LV geometry, volumes, systolic function, and torsional mechanics.
METHODS Twenty-three volunteers were prospectively studied at low altitude and after the second (D3) and third night (D4) at high altitude (4,559 m). LV ejection fraction, multidirectional strains and torsion, LV volumes, sphericity, and eccentricity were derived by speckle-tracking on three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets. Pulmonary pressure was estimated from the transtricuspid pressure gradient (TRPG), LV preload from end-diastolic LV volume, and transmitral over mitral annular E velocity (E/e').
RESULTS At high altitude, oxygen saturation decreased by 15%-20%, heart rate and cardiac index increased by 15%-20%, and TRPG increased from 21 ± 2 to 37 ± 9 mm Hg (P < .01). LV volumes, preload, ejection fraction, multidirectional strains, and sphericity remained unaffected, but diastolic (1.04 ± 0.07 to 1.09 ± 0.09 on D3/D4, P < .05) and systolic (1.00 ± 0.06 to 1.08 ± 0.1 [D3] and 1.06 ± 0.07 [D4], P < .05) eccentricity slightly increased, indicating mild septal flattening. LV torsion decreased from 2.14 ± 0.85 to 1.34 ± 0.68 (P < .05) and 1.65 ± 0.54 (P = .08) degrees/cm on D3/D4, respectively. Changes in torsion showed a weak inverse relationship to changes in systolic (r = -0.369, P = .013) and diastolic (r = -0.329, P = .032) eccentricity but not to changes in TRPG, heart rate or preload.
CONCLUSIONS High-altitude exposure was associated with mild septal flattening of the LV and reduced ventricular torsion at unchanged global LV function and preload, suggesting a relation between LV geometry and torsional mechanics.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Changes in left ventricular (LV) torsion have been related to LV geometry in patients with concomitant long-standing myocardial disease or pulmonary hypertension (PH). We evaluated the effect of acute high altitude-induced isolated PH on LV geometry, volumes, systolic function, and torsional mechanics.
METHODS Twenty-three volunteers were prospectively studied at low altitude and after the second (D3) and third night (D4) at high altitude (4,559 m). LV ejection fraction, multidirectional strains and torsion, LV volumes, sphericity, and eccentricity were derived by speckle-tracking on three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets. Pulmonary pressure was estimated from the transtricuspid pressure gradient (TRPG), LV preload from end-diastolic LV volume, and transmitral over mitral annular E velocity (E/e').
RESULTS At high altitude, oxygen saturation decreased by 15%-20%, heart rate and cardiac index increased by 15%-20%, and TRPG increased from 21 ± 2 to 37 ± 9 mm Hg (P < .01). LV volumes, preload, ejection fraction, multidirectional strains, and sphericity remained unaffected, but diastolic (1.04 ± 0.07 to 1.09 ± 0.09 on D3/D4, P < .05) and systolic (1.00 ± 0.06 to 1.08 ± 0.1 [D3] and 1.06 ± 0.07 [D4], P < .05) eccentricity slightly increased, indicating mild septal flattening. LV torsion decreased from 2.14 ± 0.85 to 1.34 ± 0.68 (P < .05) and 1.65 ± 0.54 (P = .08) degrees/cm on D3/D4, respectively. Changes in torsion showed a weak inverse relationship to changes in systolic (r = -0.369, P = .013) and diastolic (r = -0.329, P = .032) eccentricity but not to changes in TRPG, heart rate or preload.
CONCLUSIONS High-altitude exposure was associated with mild septal flattening of the LV and reduced ventricular torsion at unchanged global LV function and preload, suggesting a relation between LV geometry and torsional mechanics.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Intensive Care Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging
Health Sciences > Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Language:English
Date:March 2018
Deposited On:12 Feb 2019 13:27
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 09:18
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0894-7317
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.echo.2017.12.001
PubMed ID:29306544

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