IgE-mediated food allergy (FA) has been emerging as a public health priority. It is a potentially life-threatening condition with negative impact on the quality of life of patients and their family and its prevalence is increasing in westernized countries in the recent two decades. The current standard approach to FA consists of the strict avoidance of the triggering food. However, an elimination diet may be difficult and frustrating, above all for those foods (e.g. milk and egg) that are pivotal in the common diet. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) may increase the amount of food that the patient can intake without reaction and reduce the risk of potential life-threatening allergic reactions. It is currently considered the most promising treatment for FA. However, many gaps are still unsolved. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to shed light on the current evidence and the main needs in OIT in order to stimulate the development of longitudinal, prospective, and well-designed studies with the final goal of a 'precision medicine.' Expert commentary: Clinical trials for OIT conducted so far are extremely heterogeneous. The aim in the near future is to identify the most suitable candidates to OIT and algorithms for treatments tailored on well-characterized subpopulations of patients.