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Label-Free Digital Holo-tomographic Microscopy Reveals Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effects in Live Cells


Yakimovich, Artur; Witte, Robert; Andriasyan, Vardan; Georgi, Fanny; Greber, Urs F (2018). Label-Free Digital Holo-tomographic Microscopy Reveals Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effects in Live Cells. mSphere, 3(6):e00599-18.

Abstract

Cytopathic effects (CPEs) are a hallmark of infections. CPEs are difficult to observe due to phototoxicity from classical light microscopy. We report distinct patterns of virus infections in live cells using digital holo-tomographic microscopy (DHTM). DHTM is label-free and records the phase shift of low-energy light passing through the specimen on a transparent surface with minimal perturbation. DHTM measures the refractive index (RI) and computes the refractive index gradient (RIG), unveiling optical heterogeneity in cells. We find that vaccinia virus (VACV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and rhinovirus (RV) infections progressively and distinctly increased RIG. VACV infection, but not HSV and RV infections, induced oscillations of cell volume, while all three viruses altered cytoplasmic membrane dynamics and induced apoptotic features akin to those caused by the chemical compound staurosporine. In sum, we introduce DHTM for quantitative label-free microscopy in infection research and uncover virus type-specific changes and CPE in living cells with minimal interference. This study introduces label-free digital holo-tomographic microscopy (DHTM) and refractive index gradient (RIG) measurements of live, virus-infected cells. We use DHTM to describe virus type-specific cytopathic effects, including cyclic volume changes of vaccinia virus infections, and cytoplasmic condensations in herpesvirus and rhinovirus infections, distinct from apoptotic cells. This work shows for the first time that DHTM is suitable to observe virus-infected cells and distinguishes virus type-specific signatures under noninvasive conditions. It provides a basis for future studies, where correlative fluorescence microscopy of cell and virus structures annotate distinct RIG values derived from DHTM.

Abstract

Cytopathic effects (CPEs) are a hallmark of infections. CPEs are difficult to observe due to phototoxicity from classical light microscopy. We report distinct patterns of virus infections in live cells using digital holo-tomographic microscopy (DHTM). DHTM is label-free and records the phase shift of low-energy light passing through the specimen on a transparent surface with minimal perturbation. DHTM measures the refractive index (RI) and computes the refractive index gradient (RIG), unveiling optical heterogeneity in cells. We find that vaccinia virus (VACV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and rhinovirus (RV) infections progressively and distinctly increased RIG. VACV infection, but not HSV and RV infections, induced oscillations of cell volume, while all three viruses altered cytoplasmic membrane dynamics and induced apoptotic features akin to those caused by the chemical compound staurosporine. In sum, we introduce DHTM for quantitative label-free microscopy in infection research and uncover virus type-specific changes and CPE in living cells with minimal interference. This study introduces label-free digital holo-tomographic microscopy (DHTM) and refractive index gradient (RIG) measurements of live, virus-infected cells. We use DHTM to describe virus type-specific cytopathic effects, including cyclic volume changes of vaccinia virus infections, and cytoplasmic condensations in herpesvirus and rhinovirus infections, distinct from apoptotic cells. This work shows for the first time that DHTM is suitable to observe virus-infected cells and distinguishes virus type-specific signatures under noninvasive conditions. It provides a basis for future studies, where correlative fluorescence microscopy of cell and virus structures annotate distinct RIG values derived from DHTM.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Molecular Life Sciences
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Language:English
Date:21 November 2018
Deposited On:15 Feb 2019 13:36
Last Modified:16 Feb 2019 08:39
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
ISSN:2379-5042
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphereDirect.00599-18
PubMed ID:30463927

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