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Effectiveness and Safety of Anticoagulants in Adults with Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation and Concomitant Coronary/Peripheral Artery Disease


Lopes, Renato D; Steffel, Jan; Di Fusco, Manuela; Keshishian, Allison; Luo, Xuemei; Li, Xiaoyan; Masseria, Cristina; Hamilton, Melissa; Friend, Keith; Gupta, Kiran; Mardekian, Jack; Pan, Xianying; Baser, Onur; Jones, W Schuyler (2018). Effectiveness and Safety of Anticoagulants in Adults with Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation and Concomitant Coronary/Peripheral Artery Disease. American Journal of Medicine, 131(9):1075-1085.e4.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are at least non-inferior to warfarin in efficacy and safety among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Limited evidence is available regarding outcomes for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients with coronary/peripheral artery disease.
METHODS
Non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients aged ≥65 years diagnosed with coronary/peripheral artery disease in the US Medicare population, newly initiating DOACs (apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran) or warfarin were selected from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2015. Propensity score matching was used to compare DOACs vs warfarin. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding, and composite of stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality.
RESULTS
There were 15,527 apixaban-warfarin, 6,962 dabigatran-warfarin, and 25,903 rivaroxaban-warfarin-matched pairs, with a mean follow-up of 5-6 months. Compared with warfarin, apixaban was associated with lower rates of stroke/systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.62), major bleeding (HR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.75), and stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality (HR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.69); dabigatran and rivaroxaban were associated with lower rates of stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90 and HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.92, respectively). Rivaroxaban was associated with a lower rate of stroke/systemic embolism (HR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) and a higher rate of major bleeding (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) vs warfarin.
CONCLUSIONS
All DOACs were associated with lower stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality rates compared with warfarin; differences were observed in rates of stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding. Findings from this observational analysis provide important insights about oral anticoagulation therapy among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with coronary/peripheral artery disease and may help physicians in the decision-making process when treating this high-risk group of patients.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are at least non-inferior to warfarin in efficacy and safety among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Limited evidence is available regarding outcomes for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients with coronary/peripheral artery disease.
METHODS
Non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients aged ≥65 years diagnosed with coronary/peripheral artery disease in the US Medicare population, newly initiating DOACs (apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran) or warfarin were selected from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2015. Propensity score matching was used to compare DOACs vs warfarin. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding, and composite of stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality.
RESULTS
There were 15,527 apixaban-warfarin, 6,962 dabigatran-warfarin, and 25,903 rivaroxaban-warfarin-matched pairs, with a mean follow-up of 5-6 months. Compared with warfarin, apixaban was associated with lower rates of stroke/systemic embolism (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.62), major bleeding (HR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.75), and stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality (HR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.69); dabigatran and rivaroxaban were associated with lower rates of stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality (HR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90 and HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.92, respectively). Rivaroxaban was associated with a lower rate of stroke/systemic embolism (HR 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) and a higher rate of major bleeding (HR 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) vs warfarin.
CONCLUSIONS
All DOACs were associated with lower stroke/myocardial infarction/all-cause mortality rates compared with warfarin; differences were observed in rates of stroke/systemic embolism and major bleeding. Findings from this observational analysis provide important insights about oral anticoagulation therapy among non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with coronary/peripheral artery disease and may help physicians in the decision-making process when treating this high-risk group of patients.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:September 2018
Deposited On:22 Feb 2019 11:20
Last Modified:22 Feb 2019 12:08
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0002-9343
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.05.007
PubMed ID:29807001

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