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Intravenous Lidocaine for the Prevention of Cough: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials


Clivio, Sara; Putzu, Alessandro; Tramèr, Martin R (2019). Intravenous Lidocaine for the Prevention of Cough: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 129(5):1249-1255.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
It remains unclear to what extent intravenous lidocaine prevents cough and whether there is dose-responsiveness and risk of harm.
METHODS
We searched electronic databases to January 1, 2017 for randomized trials comparing intravenous lidocaine with placebo for the prevention of cough in surgical patients. Primary outcome was the incidence of cough. Data were analyzed using a random-effects model and were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat (NNT) with 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS
In 20 trials in adults (n = 3062) and 5 trials in children (n = 445), intravenous lidocaine 0.5-2 mg·kg was tested for the prevention of intubation-, extubation-, or opioid-induced cough. Twenty-two trials included only American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II patients; 3 trials (n = 99) also included American Society of Anesthesiologists III patients. Lidocaine was associated with a lower incidence of cough compared to placebo in adults and children, irrespective of dosage and cough etiology. Data from adults suggested dose-responsiveness; with 0.5 mg·kg, RR was 0.66 (0.50-0.88) and NNT was 8 (5.4-14.3); with 1 mg·kg, RR was 0.58 (0.49-0.69) and NNT was 7 (4.6-8.9); with 1.5 mg·kg, RR was 0.44 (0.33-0.58) and NNT was 5 (3.3-5.2); and with 2 mg·kg, RR was 0.39 (0.24-0.62) and NNT was 3 (2.0-3.4). Adverse effect reporting was sparse.
CONCLUSIONS
Within a range of 0.5-2 mg·kg, intravenous lidocaine dose dependently prevents intubation-, extubation-, and opioid-induced cough in adults and children with NNTs ranging from 8 to 3. The risk of harm in high-risk patients remains unknown.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
It remains unclear to what extent intravenous lidocaine prevents cough and whether there is dose-responsiveness and risk of harm.
METHODS
We searched electronic databases to January 1, 2017 for randomized trials comparing intravenous lidocaine with placebo for the prevention of cough in surgical patients. Primary outcome was the incidence of cough. Data were analyzed using a random-effects model and were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat (NNT) with 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS
In 20 trials in adults (n = 3062) and 5 trials in children (n = 445), intravenous lidocaine 0.5-2 mg·kg was tested for the prevention of intubation-, extubation-, or opioid-induced cough. Twenty-two trials included only American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II patients; 3 trials (n = 99) also included American Society of Anesthesiologists III patients. Lidocaine was associated with a lower incidence of cough compared to placebo in adults and children, irrespective of dosage and cough etiology. Data from adults suggested dose-responsiveness; with 0.5 mg·kg, RR was 0.66 (0.50-0.88) and NNT was 8 (5.4-14.3); with 1 mg·kg, RR was 0.58 (0.49-0.69) and NNT was 7 (4.6-8.9); with 1.5 mg·kg, RR was 0.44 (0.33-0.58) and NNT was 5 (3.3-5.2); and with 2 mg·kg, RR was 0.39 (0.24-0.62) and NNT was 3 (2.0-3.4). Adverse effect reporting was sparse.
CONCLUSIONS
Within a range of 0.5-2 mg·kg, intravenous lidocaine dose dependently prevents intubation-, extubation-, and opioid-induced cough in adults and children with NNTs ranging from 8 to 3. The risk of harm in high-risk patients remains unknown.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Cardiocentro Ticino
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Language:English
Date:November 2019
Deposited On:21 Feb 2019 15:19
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 09:23
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:0003-2999
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003699
PubMed ID:30169416

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