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Overweight in childhood cancer patients at diagnosis and throughout therapy: A multicentre cohort study


Belle, Fabiën N; Wenke-Zobler, Juliane; Cignacco, Eva; Spycher, Ben D; Ammann, Roland A; Kuehni, Claudia E; Zimmermann, Karin (2019). Overweight in childhood cancer patients at diagnosis and throughout therapy: A multicentre cohort study. Clinical Nutrition, 38(2):835-841.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Childhood cancer patients (CCP) have been reported to be at increased risk of becoming overweight during treatment. We assessed prevalence of overweight in CCP at diagnosis and at the end of treatment, determined risk factors, and identified weight change during treatment by type of cancer.

METHODS
In a multicentre cohort study, we collected height and weight measurements of CCP at diagnosis and repeatedly during treatment. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted BMI Z-scores using references of the International Obesity Taskforce for children. Risk factors were described by multivariable linear regression, and weight change during treatment by multilevel segmented linear regression.

RESULTS
The study included 327 CCP with a median age of 7 years (IQR 3-12) at diagnosis (55% boys), who had been diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, 29%), lymphoma (16%), central nervous system (CNS) tumours (13%), sarcoma (18%), and other types of cancer (24%). At diagnosis, 27 CCP (8%) were overweight. This increased to 43 (13%) at end of treatment, on average 0.7 years after diagnosis. Being a boy (p = 0.005) and having been diagnosed with ALL or lymphoma (p < 0.001) were risk factors for weight gain during treatment. During the first half of treatment, BMI Z-scores increased in ALL (regression slope β = 0.4, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and lymphoma (β = 1.5, 95% CI 0.2-2.9) patients, whereas for patients with CNS tumours (β = -1.4, 95% CI -2.7 to -0.2), sarcoma (β = -1.4, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.7), or other types of cancer (β = -0.3, 95% CI -1.5-0.9) BMI Z-scores tended to drop initially. During the second half of treatment BMI Z-scores of all patients tended to increase. Exploratory analyses showed that BMI Z-scores of younger ALL patients (<7 years at diagnosis) increased during induction (β = 3.8, 95% CI 0.5-7.0). The inverse was seen for older ALL patients (≥7 years at diagnosis), in whom BMI Z-scores tended to decrease during induction (β = -1.5, -5.1-2.2), both groups tended to increase afterwards.

CONCLUSION
CCP diagnosed with ALL or lymphoma are at increased risk of weight gain during treatment, and might particularly benefit from early lifestyle interventions.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Childhood cancer patients (CCP) have been reported to be at increased risk of becoming overweight during treatment. We assessed prevalence of overweight in CCP at diagnosis and at the end of treatment, determined risk factors, and identified weight change during treatment by type of cancer.

METHODS
In a multicentre cohort study, we collected height and weight measurements of CCP at diagnosis and repeatedly during treatment. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted BMI Z-scores using references of the International Obesity Taskforce for children. Risk factors were described by multivariable linear regression, and weight change during treatment by multilevel segmented linear regression.

RESULTS
The study included 327 CCP with a median age of 7 years (IQR 3-12) at diagnosis (55% boys), who had been diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL, 29%), lymphoma (16%), central nervous system (CNS) tumours (13%), sarcoma (18%), and other types of cancer (24%). At diagnosis, 27 CCP (8%) were overweight. This increased to 43 (13%) at end of treatment, on average 0.7 years after diagnosis. Being a boy (p = 0.005) and having been diagnosed with ALL or lymphoma (p < 0.001) were risk factors for weight gain during treatment. During the first half of treatment, BMI Z-scores increased in ALL (regression slope β = 0.4, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and lymphoma (β = 1.5, 95% CI 0.2-2.9) patients, whereas for patients with CNS tumours (β = -1.4, 95% CI -2.7 to -0.2), sarcoma (β = -1.4, 95% CI -2.0 to -0.7), or other types of cancer (β = -0.3, 95% CI -1.5-0.9) BMI Z-scores tended to drop initially. During the second half of treatment BMI Z-scores of all patients tended to increase. Exploratory analyses showed that BMI Z-scores of younger ALL patients (<7 years at diagnosis) increased during induction (β = 3.8, 95% CI 0.5-7.0). The inverse was seen for older ALL patients (≥7 years at diagnosis), in whom BMI Z-scores tended to decrease during induction (β = -1.5, -5.1-2.2), both groups tended to increase afterwards.

CONCLUSION
CCP diagnosed with ALL or lymphoma are at increased risk of weight gain during treatment, and might particularly benefit from early lifestyle interventions.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Nutrition and Dietetics, Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:30 Jan 2019 11:12
Last Modified:22 Mar 2019 02:04
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0261-5614
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.022
PubMed ID:29544999
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant IDPZ00P3_147987
  • : Project TitleThe spatial epidemiology of childhood cancer in Switzerland

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