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Soft tissue microcirculation around the healthy Achilles tendon: a cross-sectional study focusing on the Achilles tendon and dorsal surgical approaches to the hindfoot


Klos, Kajetan; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Carow, John Bennet; Modabber, Ali; Nebelung, Sven; Kim, Bong-Sung; Horst, Klemens; Weber, Christian David; Knobe, Matthias (2018). Soft tissue microcirculation around the healthy Achilles tendon: a cross-sectional study focusing on the Achilles tendon and dorsal surgical approaches to the hindfoot. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 13(1):142.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Dorsal approaches to the hindfoot are frequently used. Furthermore, the vascular supply is discussed as a possible cause for ruptures and degeneration of the Achilles tendon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microperfusion of three possible posterior approaches to the hindfoot and different areas of the Achilles tendon.

METHODS
In 111 subjects, a laser Doppler/white light spectroscopy was used to measure microperfusion in terms of blood flow (Flow) and capillary venous oxygen saturation (SO2) in the hindfoot and Achilles tendon. Measurements were performed at two measurement points (MP, proximal and distal) of three dorsal approaches (medial, lateral and central) and inside the Achilles tendon.

RESULTS
Microperfusion differed partially between the surgical approaches. The medial and the lateral approaches were significantly superior to the central approach with regard to Flow in both MP (p <  0.001), while SO2 was significantly higher at the proximal measurement point (MP 1; p <  0.001). In this area, the lateral approach was significantly superior to the medial approach regarding Flow (MP 1; p = 0.012). The Achilles tendon exhibited a significantly reduced microperfusion 5 cm proximal to the calcaneal tubercle (SO2 p = 0.001; Flow p = 0.048). Demographic factors, such as body mass index and age, had different effects. Microcirculation was partially superior in men and negatively affected by smoking.

CONCLUSIONS
Soft tissue microcirculation on the lateral and medial side of the healthy Achilles tendon was better than centrally on the tendon. Proximally, the lateral approach was better than the medial approach. These circumstances could provide advantages regarding the surgical approach. The Achilles tendon exhibited significantly reduced microperfusion at the typical side of degeneration and rupture. This circumstance could be a possible cause of degenerative processes.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Dorsal approaches to the hindfoot are frequently used. Furthermore, the vascular supply is discussed as a possible cause for ruptures and degeneration of the Achilles tendon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microperfusion of three possible posterior approaches to the hindfoot and different areas of the Achilles tendon.

METHODS
In 111 subjects, a laser Doppler/white light spectroscopy was used to measure microperfusion in terms of blood flow (Flow) and capillary venous oxygen saturation (SO2) in the hindfoot and Achilles tendon. Measurements were performed at two measurement points (MP, proximal and distal) of three dorsal approaches (medial, lateral and central) and inside the Achilles tendon.

RESULTS
Microperfusion differed partially between the surgical approaches. The medial and the lateral approaches were significantly superior to the central approach with regard to Flow in both MP (p <  0.001), while SO2 was significantly higher at the proximal measurement point (MP 1; p <  0.001). In this area, the lateral approach was significantly superior to the medial approach regarding Flow (MP 1; p = 0.012). The Achilles tendon exhibited a significantly reduced microperfusion 5 cm proximal to the calcaneal tubercle (SO2 p = 0.001; Flow p = 0.048). Demographic factors, such as body mass index and age, had different effects. Microcirculation was partially superior in men and negatively affected by smoking.

CONCLUSIONS
Soft tissue microcirculation on the lateral and medial side of the healthy Achilles tendon was better than centrally on the tendon. Proximally, the lateral approach was better than the medial approach. These circumstances could provide advantages regarding the surgical approach. The Achilles tendon exhibited significantly reduced microperfusion at the typical side of degeneration and rupture. This circumstance could be a possible cause of degenerative processes.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Reconstructive Surgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:7 June 2018
Deposited On:13 Feb 2019 13:05
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:09
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1749-799X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-018-0850-x
PubMed ID:29880004

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