The aim of this study was to measure the translucency of one indirect and direct resin composite after polymerization and to examine the effect of color parameters on this property. Tescera and Filtek Ultimate, each containing three shade groups (Enamel, Dentin and Body for Filtek Ultimate; and Incisal, Opaceous Dentin and Body for Tescera), were investigated. The translucency parameter (TP) was measured as the color difference between a specimen over a white and black background. Significant differences were observed in TP values between shade groups. Tukey’s multiple comparison test revealed TP values among the groups of Filtek Ultimate-Enamel > Tescera-Incisal > Filtek Ultimate-Body > Tescera-Body = Filtek Ultimate-Dentin > Tescera-Opaceous Dentin. In conclusion, it is concluded that the translucency of resin composite was affected by polymerization and color parameters.