This article examines the structure of character strengths (Peterson and Seligman, 2004) following both variable-centered and person-centered approaches. We used the International Personality Item Pool-Values in Action (IPIP-VIA) questionnaire. The IPIP-VIA measures 24 character strengths and consists of 213 direct and reversed items. The present study was conducted in a heterogeneous group of N = 908 Poles (aged 18–78, M = 28.58). It was part of a validation project of a Polish version of the IPIP-VIA questionnaire. The variable-centered approach was used to examine the structure of character strengths on both the scale and item levels. The scale-level results indicated a four-factor structure that can be interpreted based on four of the five personality traits from the Big Five theory (excluding neuroticism). The item-level analysis suggested a slightly different and limited set of character strengths (17 not 24). After conducting a second-order analysis, a four-factor structure emerged, and three of the factors could be interpreted as being consistent with the scale-level factors. Three character strength profiles were found using the person-centered approach. Two of them were consistent with alpha and beta personality metatraits. The structure of character strengths can be described by using categories from the Five Factor Model of personality and metatraits. They form factors similar to some personality traits and occur in similar constellations as metatraits. The main contributions of this paper are: (1) the validation of IPIP-VIA conducted in variable-centered approach in a new research group (Poles) using a different measurement instrument; (2) introducing the person-centered approach to the study of the structure of character strengths.