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In-Groups and Out-Groups


Gundelach, Birte (2018). In-Groups and Out-Groups. In: Ritzer, Georg. The Wiley Blackwell encyclopedia of sociology. London: John Wiley & Sons, online.

Abstract

An in‐group is a social grouping which an individual feels belonging to, feels shared salient similarities with, as well as attaches an explicit sense of togetherness or “we‐ness” to. In‐group membership is not the mere result of cognitive classification according to salient social categories. Rather, it simultaneously involves emotional significance. In‐group affiliation evokes liking, trust, solidarity, and co‐operation toward in‐group members which are not extended to out‐groups. An out‐group is defined with direct reference to the in‐group. The out‐group refers to “the others,” to the people outside of the in‐group. It is a social grouping which an individual neither feels belonging to, nor identifies with, nor shares salient similarities with. An out‐group can imply a diffuse and abstract group of others, or instead a social group with specific social characteristics from which a given in‐group aims to be clearly distinguished.

Abstract

An in‐group is a social grouping which an individual feels belonging to, feels shared salient similarities with, as well as attaches an explicit sense of togetherness or “we‐ness” to. In‐group membership is not the mere result of cognitive classification according to salient social categories. Rather, it simultaneously involves emotional significance. In‐group affiliation evokes liking, trust, solidarity, and co‐operation toward in‐group members which are not extended to out‐groups. An out‐group is defined with direct reference to the in‐group. The out‐group refers to “the others,” to the people outside of the in‐group. It is a social grouping which an individual neither feels belonging to, nor identifies with, nor shares salient similarities with. An out‐group can imply a diffuse and abstract group of others, or instead a social group with specific social characteristics from which a given in‐group aims to be clearly distinguished.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Book Section, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Political Science
02 Faculty of Law > Centre for Democracy Studies Aarau (C2D)
Dewey Decimal Classification:300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology
320 Political science
Uncontrolled Keywords:group membership, in‐group, in‐group bias, in‐group favoritism, intergroup behavior, intergroup conflict, out‐group, social categorization, social groups, social identity
Language:English
Date:27 April 2018
Deposited On:23 Jan 2019 09:32
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:09
Publisher:John Wiley & Sons
ISBN:9781405124331
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405165518.wbeosi046.pub2

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