We investigated the role of the CXCR3 chemokine CXCL11 (I-TAC) for leukocyte recruitment to the CSF in neuroborreliosis (NB). CXCL11 levels in the CSF of 17 patients with acute NB were elevated compared with 20 non-inflammatory controls (100.1 vs. 54.1 pg/ml, p = 0.002). Using a modified Boyden chamber chemotaxis-assay, the CSF of patients with acute NB was more chemotactic than the control CSF-samples (p = 0.001). A strong correlation (p < 0.001) between CXCL11 levels, chemotactic activity and CSF-white cell count was detected. Though the chemotactic activity of CSF from NB patients was only partially reduced by a human recombinant CXCL11 antibody, these findings suggest that, among other chemotactic factors, CXCL11 may play a role in the chemotaxis of mononuclear cells in NB.