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Astrocyte function from information processing to cognition and cognitive impairment


Santello, Mirko; Toni, Nicolas; Volterra, Andrea (2019). Astrocyte function from information processing to cognition and cognitive impairment. Nature Neuroscience, 22(2):154-166.

Abstract

Astrocytes serve important roles that affect recruitment and function of neurons at the local and network levels. Here we review the contributions of astrocyte signaling to synaptic plasticity, neuronal network oscillations, and memory function. The roles played by astrocytes are not fully understood, but astrocytes seem to contribute to memory consolidation and seem to mediate the effects of vigilance and arousal on memory performance. Understanding the role of astrocytes in cognitive processes may also advance our understanding of how these processes go awry in pathological conditions. Indeed, abnormal astrocytic signaling can cause or contribute to synaptic and network imbalances, leading to cognitive impairment. We discuss evidence for this from animal models of Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis and from animal studies of sleep deprivation and drug abuse and addiction. Understanding the emerging roles of astrocytes in cognitive function and dysfunction will open up a large array of new therapeutic opportunities.

Abstract

Astrocytes serve important roles that affect recruitment and function of neurons at the local and network levels. Here we review the contributions of astrocyte signaling to synaptic plasticity, neuronal network oscillations, and memory function. The roles played by astrocytes are not fully understood, but astrocytes seem to contribute to memory consolidation and seem to mediate the effects of vigilance and arousal on memory performance. Understanding the role of astrocytes in cognitive processes may also advance our understanding of how these processes go awry in pathological conditions. Indeed, abnormal astrocytic signaling can cause or contribute to synaptic and network imbalances, leading to cognitive impairment. We discuss evidence for this from animal models of Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis and from animal studies of sleep deprivation and drug abuse and addiction. Understanding the emerging roles of astrocytes in cognitive function and dysfunction will open up a large array of new therapeutic opportunities.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
07 Faculty of Science > Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 February 2019
Deposited On:14 Mar 2019 11:05
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:15
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:1097-6256
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-018-0325-8
PubMed ID:30664773

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