The protective effects of milk and milk products against dental caries have been demonstrated in many animal studies. We have shown that this effect was mediated by micellar casein or caseinopeptide derivatives. A reduction in the Streptococcus sobrinus population in the oral microbiota of animals fed diets supplemented with these milk components was consistently observed. A possible explanation for these findings is that milk components are incorporated into the salivary pellicle, thereby reducing the adherence of S. sobrinus. This hypothesis was tested in vitro by the incubation of bovine enamel discs with unstimulated saliva. The resulting pellicle was washed and incubated with caseinoglycomacropeptide (CGMP) and/or caseinophosphopeptide (CPP) labeled with 17- and 12-nm gold particles. All samples were prepared for electron microscopy by high-pressure freezing followed by freeze-substitution. It was demonstrated by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy with back-scattered electron imaging, as well as by transmission electron microscopy, that both peptides were incorporated into the pellicle in exchange for albumin, confirming previous findings. This protein was identified with a mouse anti-human serum albumin followed by goat anti-mouse IgG labeled with 25-nm gold particles. Incorporation of CGMP and/or CPP into salivary pellicles reduced the adherence of both S. sobrinus and S. mutans significantly. It is suggested that the calcium and phosphate-rich micellar casein or caseinopeptides are incorporated into the pellicle. The resulting ecological shifts, together with the increased remineralization potential of this biofilm, may explain its modified cariogenic potential.