Dopaminergic signaling in the striatum, particularly at dopamine 2 receptors (D2R), has been a topic of active investigation in obesity research in the past decades. However, it still remains unclear whether variations in striatal D2Rs modulate the risk for obesity and if so in which direction. Human studies have yielded contradictory findings that likely reflect a complex nonlinear relationship, possibly involving a combination of causal effects and compensatory changes. Animal work indicates that although chronic obesogenic diets reduce striatal D2R function, striatal D2R down-regulation does not lead to obesity. In this study, we evaluated the consequences of striatal D2R up-regulation on body-weight gain susceptibility and energy balance in mice. We used a mouse model of D2R overexpression (D2R-OE) in which D2Rs were selectively up-regulated in striatal medium spiny neurons. We uncover a pathological mechanism by which striatal D2R-OE leads to reduced brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, reduced energy expenditure, and accelerated obesity despite reduced eating. We also show that D2R-OE restricted to development is sufficient to promote obesity and to induce energy-balance deficits. Together, our findings indicate that striatal D2R-OE during development persistently increases the propensity for obesity by reducing energy output in mice. This suggests that early alterations in the striatal dopamine system could represent a key predisposition factor toward obesity.