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Prenatal exposure to environmental insults and enhanced risk of developing Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder: focus on biological pathways and epigenetic mechanisms


Cattane, Nadia; Richetto, Juliet; Cattaneo, Annamaria (2018). Prenatal exposure to environmental insults and enhanced risk of developing Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorder: focus on biological pathways and epigenetic mechanisms. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews:Epub ahead of print.

Abstract

When considering neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are considered to be among the most severe in term of prevalence, morbidity and impact on the society. Similar features and overlapping symptoms have been observed at multiple levels, suggesting common pathophysiological bases. Indeed, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and epidemiological data report shared vulnerability genes and environmental triggers across the two disorders. In this review, we will discuss the possible biological mechanisms, including glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions, inflammatory signals and oxidative stress related systems, which are targeted by adverse environmental exposures and that have been associated with the development of SZ and ASD. We will also discuss the emerging role of the gut microbiome as possible interplay between environment, immune system and brain development. Finally, we will describe the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the maintenance of long-lasting effects of adverse environments early in life. This will allow us to better understand the pathophysiology of these NDDs, and also to identify novel targets for future treatment strategies.

Abstract

When considering neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are considered to be among the most severe in term of prevalence, morbidity and impact on the society. Similar features and overlapping symptoms have been observed at multiple levels, suggesting common pathophysiological bases. Indeed, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and epidemiological data report shared vulnerability genes and environmental triggers across the two disorders. In this review, we will discuss the possible biological mechanisms, including glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions, inflammatory signals and oxidative stress related systems, which are targeted by adverse environmental exposures and that have been associated with the development of SZ and ASD. We will also discuss the emerging role of the gut microbiome as possible interplay between environment, immune system and brain development. Finally, we will describe the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the maintenance of long-lasting effects of adverse environments early in life. This will allow us to better understand the pathophysiology of these NDDs, and also to identify novel targets for future treatment strategies.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Uncontrolled Keywords:Cognitive Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroscience, Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology, Autism; Biological systems; Brain development; DNA methylation; Epigenetics; Inflammation; Microbiota; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Prenatal infections; Prenatal stress; Schizophrenia
Language:English
Date:1 July 2018
Deposited On:24 Jan 2019 17:40
Last Modified:24 Jan 2019 17:44
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0149-7634
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.07.001
PubMed ID:29981347

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