BACKGROUND uman lung transplantation has evolved to an established treatment for pulmonary diseases in their end stages; however, the long-term outcome is worse when compared to all other solid transplantable organs. The major reason for this unfavorable outcome is rejection, either in its acute or chronic form, the latter termed as chronic lung allograft dysfunction.
METHODS systematic review search was performed.
RESULTS One of the most important immune cells responsible for rejection are T cells. Beside alloreactive CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells play a key role during the evolvement of allograft rejection. Certain subsets of these allograft CD4+ T cells have been identified which have been shown to exert either transplant-protective or transplant-injuring properties. These effects have been proven in various experimental models, mainly in rats and mice, and allowed for the gain of important insights into these proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory characteristics including their targetability: while the subsets Th1, Th17, Th22, and Tfh cells have been shown to act in a rather proinflammatory way, Tregs, Th2, and Th9 subsets exert anti-inflammatory effects. Chronic airway obstruction is mainly induced by IL17 as shown across models.
CONCLUSIONS This review shall summarize and provide an overview of the current evidence about the role and effects of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory CD4-+ T helper cell subsets during lung allograft rejection in experimental rodent models.