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The concepts of asthma endotypes and phenotypes to guide current and novel treatment strategies


Ozdemir, Cevdet; Kucuksezer, Umut Can; Akdis, Mubeccel; Akdis, Cezmi A (2018). The concepts of asthma endotypes and phenotypes to guide current and novel treatment strategies. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, 12(9):733-743.

Abstract

Asthma, a common, non-communicable chronic disease affects over 300 million individuals worldwide. The Western world lifestyle is claimed to be responsible for this high and increasing prevalence. Asthma has been defined as a syndrome with various phenotypes and endotypes, allergic asthma and type 2 asthma being the most frequent. A great increase in prevalence of allergic diseases has necessitated intensive investigations both for understanding the underlying mechanisms and for the development of novel therapy options with long-term efficacy and limited side-effects. Allergic patients demonstrate unique presentations with variable visible characteristics and disease outcomes depending on different molecular mechanisms, related to influence of genes and epigenetic control by micro- and macro-environment. Areas covered: This article reviews the definition of asthma phenotypes and possible endotypes, advances in allergy-immunology field and contemporary personalized therapy options for asthma. Expert commentary: Better understanding of the complex immune network of allergic inflammation and key players of immunity is continuously being provided for clarification of asthma sub-types. Successful therapy of asthma requires better definition of underlying pathogenesis, which sequentially could end up with 'custom-tailored' individualized, evidence-based and more precise therapy options; a new era termed as 'precision medicine'. Endotype, phenotype, theratype and biomarker terms arise as major keywords in precision/personalized medicine.

Abstract

Asthma, a common, non-communicable chronic disease affects over 300 million individuals worldwide. The Western world lifestyle is claimed to be responsible for this high and increasing prevalence. Asthma has been defined as a syndrome with various phenotypes and endotypes, allergic asthma and type 2 asthma being the most frequent. A great increase in prevalence of allergic diseases has necessitated intensive investigations both for understanding the underlying mechanisms and for the development of novel therapy options with long-term efficacy and limited side-effects. Allergic patients demonstrate unique presentations with variable visible characteristics and disease outcomes depending on different molecular mechanisms, related to influence of genes and epigenetic control by micro- and macro-environment. Areas covered: This article reviews the definition of asthma phenotypes and possible endotypes, advances in allergy-immunology field and contemporary personalized therapy options for asthma. Expert commentary: Better understanding of the complex immune network of allergic inflammation and key players of immunity is continuously being provided for clarification of asthma sub-types. Successful therapy of asthma requires better definition of underlying pathogenesis, which sequentially could end up with 'custom-tailored' individualized, evidence-based and more precise therapy options; a new era termed as 'precision medicine'. Endotype, phenotype, theratype and biomarker terms arise as major keywords in precision/personalized medicine.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Immunology and Allergy, Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
Language:English
Date:2 September 2018
Deposited On:22 Feb 2019 10:36
Last Modified:25 Sep 2019 00:16
Publisher:Expert Reviews
ISSN:1747-6348
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2018.1505507
PubMed ID:30084271

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