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Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis started during or after travel: A GeoSentinel analysis


Abstract

BACKGROUND Recent studies demonstrate that rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) in international travelers is suboptimal, with only 5-20% of travelers receiving rabies immune globulin (RIG) in the country of exposure when indicated. We hypothesized that travelers may not be receiving RIG appropriately, and practices may vary between countries. We aim to describe the characteristics of travelers who received RIG and/or RPEP during travel.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We conducted a multi-center review of international travelers exposed to potentially rabid animals, collecting information on RPEP administration. Travelers who started RPEP before (Group A) and at (Group B) presentation to a GeoSentinel clinic during September 2014-July 2017 were included. We included 920 travelers who started RPEP. About two-thirds of Group A travelers with an indication for rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) did not receive it. Travelers exposed in Indonesia were less likely to receive RIG in the country of exposure (relative risk: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.73; P = 0.01). Travelers exposed in Thailand [Relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.0-1.8; P = 0.02], Sri Lanka (RR 3.99, 95% CI: 3.99-11.9; P = 0.013), and the Philippines (RR 19.95, 95% CI: 2.5-157.2; P = 0.01), were more likely to receive RIG in the country of exposure.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE This analysis highlights gaps in early delivery of RIG to travelers and identifies specific countries where travelers may be more or less likely to receive RIG. More detailed country-level information helps inform risk education of international travelers regarding appropriate rabies prevention.

Abstract

BACKGROUND Recent studies demonstrate that rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) in international travelers is suboptimal, with only 5-20% of travelers receiving rabies immune globulin (RIG) in the country of exposure when indicated. We hypothesized that travelers may not be receiving RIG appropriately, and practices may vary between countries. We aim to describe the characteristics of travelers who received RIG and/or RPEP during travel.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We conducted a multi-center review of international travelers exposed to potentially rabid animals, collecting information on RPEP administration. Travelers who started RPEP before (Group A) and at (Group B) presentation to a GeoSentinel clinic during September 2014-July 2017 were included. We included 920 travelers who started RPEP. About two-thirds of Group A travelers with an indication for rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) did not receive it. Travelers exposed in Indonesia were less likely to receive RIG in the country of exposure (relative risk: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.73; P = 0.01). Travelers exposed in Thailand [Relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 1.0-1.8; P = 0.02], Sri Lanka (RR 3.99, 95% CI: 3.99-11.9; P = 0.013), and the Philippines (RR 19.95, 95% CI: 2.5-157.2; P = 0.01), were more likely to receive RIG in the country of exposure.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE This analysis highlights gaps in early delivery of RIG to travelers and identifies specific countries where travelers may be more or less likely to receive RIG. More detailed country-level information helps inform risk education of international travelers regarding appropriate rabies prevention.

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Additional indexing

Contributors:GeoSentinel Global Surveillance Network
Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute (EBPI)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2018
Deposited On:27 Feb 2019 15:58
Last Modified:27 Feb 2019 15:59
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1935-2727
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006951
Official URL:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258561/pdf/pntd.0006951.pdf
PubMed ID:30422981

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