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Virological outcome of patients with HIV drug resistance attending an urban out-patient clinic in Uganda: a need for structured adherence counselling and third line treatment options


Baumann, Anna; Musaazi, Joseph; Kambugu, Andrew; Kälin, Marisa; Weissberg, Dana; Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Fehr, Jan; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Christine; von Braun, Amrei (2019). Virological outcome of patients with HIV drug resistance attending an urban out-patient clinic in Uganda: a need for structured adherence counselling and third line treatment options. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 80(4):481-487.

Abstract

BACKGROUND HIV drug resistance and suboptimal adherence are the main reasons for treatment failure among HIV-infected individuals. As genotypic resistance testing is not routinely available in resource-limited settings such as Uganda, data on transmitted and acquired resistance is sparse.
METHODS This observational follow-up study assessed the virological outcomes of patients diagnosed with virological failure or transmitted HIV drug resistance in 2015 at the adults' out-patient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda. Initially, 2430 patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) underwent virological monitoring, of which 190 had virological failure and were subsequently eligible for this follow-up study. Nine patients diagnosed with transmitted drug resistance were eligible. In patients with a viral load > 1000 copies/mL genotypic resistance testing was done.
RESULTS Of 190 eligible patients, 30 (15.8%) had either died or were lost to follow-up. A total of 148 (77.9%) were included, of which 98 had had a change of ART regimen, and 50 had received adherence counselling only. The majority was now on 2-line ART (N=130, 87.8%). The median age was 39 years (interquartile range: 32-46) and 109 (73.6%) were female. Virological failure was diagnosed in 29 (19.6%) patients, of which 24 (82.8%) were on 2-line ART. Relevant drug resistance was found in 25 (86.2%) cases, of which 12 (41.3%) carried dual and 7 (24.1%) triple drug resistance.
CONCLUSION Two years after initial virological failure, most patients followed up by this study had a successful virological outcome. However, a significant proportion either continued to fail or died or was lost to follow-up.

Abstract

BACKGROUND HIV drug resistance and suboptimal adherence are the main reasons for treatment failure among HIV-infected individuals. As genotypic resistance testing is not routinely available in resource-limited settings such as Uganda, data on transmitted and acquired resistance is sparse.
METHODS This observational follow-up study assessed the virological outcomes of patients diagnosed with virological failure or transmitted HIV drug resistance in 2015 at the adults' out-patient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda. Initially, 2430 patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) underwent virological monitoring, of which 190 had virological failure and were subsequently eligible for this follow-up study. Nine patients diagnosed with transmitted drug resistance were eligible. In patients with a viral load > 1000 copies/mL genotypic resistance testing was done.
RESULTS Of 190 eligible patients, 30 (15.8%) had either died or were lost to follow-up. A total of 148 (77.9%) were included, of which 98 had had a change of ART regimen, and 50 had received adherence counselling only. The majority was now on 2-line ART (N=130, 87.8%). The median age was 39 years (interquartile range: 32-46) and 109 (73.6%) were female. Virological failure was diagnosed in 29 (19.6%) patients, of which 24 (82.8%) were on 2-line ART. Relevant drug resistance was found in 25 (86.2%) cases, of which 12 (41.3%) carried dual and 7 (24.1%) triple drug resistance.
CONCLUSION Two years after initial virological failure, most patients followed up by this study had a successful virological outcome. However, a significant proportion either continued to fail or died or was lost to follow-up.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:14 Mar 2019 17:34
Last Modified:14 Mar 2019 17:35
Publisher:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISSN:1525-4135
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001943
PubMed ID:30633041

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