A companion article, which was published in the February 1996 (Vol. 18, No. 2) supplement to Compendium, discussed techniques and normal findings of ultrasonography of the bovine liver. This article discusses abnormal findings. Ultrasonography can help locate a hepatic abscess; ultrasonographically guided centesis is usually necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Diagnostic differentials include neoplasia and cysts. The appearance and odor of the aspirate usually confirm the diagnosis of abscess. Estimates of the liver's size and weight obtained ultrasonographically are useful in diagnosing diffuse hepatic disease. The ultrasonographic appearance of the liver can aid in assessing the severity of fatty liver disease. Ultrasonography is also useful for identifying and localizing biliary obstruction. Other conditions that produce ultrasonographic signs in the liver include portal hypertension, systemic venous congestion, and ascites. Chronic calcification of bile ducts suggests long-standing fascioliasis.