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Heart rate reserve during pharmacological stress is a significant negative predictor of impaired coronary flow reserve in women


Haider, Ahmed; Bengs, Susan; Maredziak, Monika; Messerli, Michael; Fiechter, Michael; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Treyer, Valerie; Schwyzer, Moritz; Kamani, Christel Hermann; Patriki, Dimitri; von Felten, Elia; Benz, Dominik C; Fuchs, Tobias A; Gräni, Christoph; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Buechel, Ronny R; Gebhard, Catherine (2019). Heart rate reserve during pharmacological stress is a significant negative predictor of impaired coronary flow reserve in women. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 46(6):1257-1267.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Evidence to date has failed to adequately explore determinants of cardiovascular risk in women with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD). Heart rate responses to adenosine mirror autonomic activity and may carry important prognostic information for the diagnosis of CMVD.

METHODS
Hemodynamic changes during adenosine stress were analyzed in a propensity-matched cohort of 404 patients (202 women, mean age 65.9 ± 11.0) who underwent clinically indicated myocardial perfusion N-ammonia Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) at our institution between September 2013 and May 2017.

RESULTS
Baseline heart rate (HR) was significantly higher in patients with abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR, p < 0.001 vs normal CFR). Accordingly, a blunted HR response to adenosine (=reduced heart rate reserve, %HRR) was seen in patients with abnormal CFR, with a most pronounced effect being observed in female patients free of myocardial ischemia (45.9 ± 34.9 vs 26.5 ± 18.0, p < 0.001 in women and 29.1 ± 16.9 vs 24.3 ± 21.7, p = 0.15 in men). Hence, a fully-adjusted multivariate logistic regression model identified HRR as the strongest negative predictor of reduced CFR in women free of myocardial ischemia, but not in men. Accordingly, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the presence of reduced CFR revealed that a %HRR <35 was a powerful predictor for abnormal CFR with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 60% in women.

CONCLUSION
A blunted HRR <35% is associated with abnormal CFR in women. Taking into account HR responses during stress test in women may help to risk stratify the heterogeneous female population of patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).

Abstract

PURPOSE
Evidence to date has failed to adequately explore determinants of cardiovascular risk in women with coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMVD). Heart rate responses to adenosine mirror autonomic activity and may carry important prognostic information for the diagnosis of CMVD.

METHODS
Hemodynamic changes during adenosine stress were analyzed in a propensity-matched cohort of 404 patients (202 women, mean age 65.9 ± 11.0) who underwent clinically indicated myocardial perfusion N-ammonia Positron-Emission-Tomography (PET) at our institution between September 2013 and May 2017.

RESULTS
Baseline heart rate (HR) was significantly higher in patients with abnormal coronary flow reserve (CFR, p < 0.001 vs normal CFR). Accordingly, a blunted HR response to adenosine (=reduced heart rate reserve, %HRR) was seen in patients with abnormal CFR, with a most pronounced effect being observed in female patients free of myocardial ischemia (45.9 ± 34.9 vs 26.5 ± 18.0, p < 0.001 in women and 29.1 ± 16.9 vs 24.3 ± 21.7, p = 0.15 in men). Hence, a fully-adjusted multivariate logistic regression model identified HRR as the strongest negative predictor of reduced CFR in women free of myocardial ischemia, but not in men. Accordingly, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the presence of reduced CFR revealed that a %HRR <35 was a powerful predictor for abnormal CFR with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 60% in women.

CONCLUSION
A blunted HRR <35% is associated with abnormal CFR in women. Taking into account HR responses during stress test in women may help to risk stratify the heterogeneous female population of patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Nuclear Medicine
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 June 2019
Deposited On:05 Feb 2019 14:51
Last Modified:28 Apr 2019 01:04
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1619-7070
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-4265-7
PubMed ID:30648200

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