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Iron Prevents Hypoxia-Associated Inflammation Through the Regulation of Nuclear Factor-κB in the Intestinal Epithelium


Simmen, Simona; Cosin-Roger, Jesus; Melhem, Hassan; Maliachovas, Nikolaos; Maane, Max; Baebler, Katharina; Weder, Bruce; Maeyashiki, Chiaki; Spanaus, Katharina; Scharl, Michael; de Vallière, Cheryl; Zeitz, Jonas; Vavricka, Stephan R; Hausmann, Martin; Rogler, Gerhard; Ruiz, Pedro A (2019). Iron Prevents Hypoxia-Associated Inflammation Through the Regulation of Nuclear Factor-κB in the Intestinal Epithelium. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7(2):339-355.

Abstract

Background & Aims
Hypoxia-associated pathways influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are mediated through hypoxia-inducible factors, which are regulated by iron-dependent hydroxylases. Signals reflecting oxygen tension and iron levels in enterocytes regulate iron metabolism. Conversely, iron availability modulates responses to hypoxia. In the present study we sought to elucidate how iron influences the responses to hypoxia in the intestinal epithelium.
Methods
Human subjects were exposed to hypoxia, and colonic biopsy specimens and serum samples were collected. HT-29, Caco-2, and T84 cells were subjected to normoxia or hypoxia in the presence of iron or the iron chelator deferoxamine. Changes in inflammatory gene expression and signaling were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed using antibodies against nuclear factor (NF)-κB and primers for the promoter of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)1β.
Results
Human subjects presented reduced levels of ferritin in the intestinal epithelium after hypoxia. Hypoxia reduced iron deprivation–associated TNF and IL1β expression in HT-29 cells through the induction of autophagy. Contrarily, hypoxia triggered TNF and IL1β expression, and NF-κB activation in Caco-2 and T84 cells. Iron blocked autophagy in Caco-2 cells, while reducing hypoxia-associated TNF and IL1β expression through the inhibition of NF-κB binding to the promoter of TNF and IL1β.
Conclusions
Hypoxia promotes iron mobilization from the intestinal epithelium. Hypoxia-associated autophagy reduces inflammatory processes in HT-29 cells. In Caco-2 cells, iron uptake is essential to counteract hypoxia-induced inflammation. Iron mobilization into enterocytes may be a vital protective mechanism in the hypoxic inflamed mucosa.

Abstract

Background & Aims
Hypoxia-associated pathways influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Adaptive responses to hypoxia are mediated through hypoxia-inducible factors, which are regulated by iron-dependent hydroxylases. Signals reflecting oxygen tension and iron levels in enterocytes regulate iron metabolism. Conversely, iron availability modulates responses to hypoxia. In the present study we sought to elucidate how iron influences the responses to hypoxia in the intestinal epithelium.
Methods
Human subjects were exposed to hypoxia, and colonic biopsy specimens and serum samples were collected. HT-29, Caco-2, and T84 cells were subjected to normoxia or hypoxia in the presence of iron or the iron chelator deferoxamine. Changes in inflammatory gene expression and signaling were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed using antibodies against nuclear factor (NF)-κB and primers for the promoter of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)1β.
Results
Human subjects presented reduced levels of ferritin in the intestinal epithelium after hypoxia. Hypoxia reduced iron deprivation–associated TNF and IL1β expression in HT-29 cells through the induction of autophagy. Contrarily, hypoxia triggered TNF and IL1β expression, and NF-κB activation in Caco-2 and T84 cells. Iron blocked autophagy in Caco-2 cells, while reducing hypoxia-associated TNF and IL1β expression through the inhibition of NF-κB binding to the promoter of TNF and IL1β.
Conclusions
Hypoxia promotes iron mobilization from the intestinal epithelium. Hypoxia-associated autophagy reduces inflammatory processes in HT-29 cells. In Caco-2 cells, iron uptake is essential to counteract hypoxia-induced inflammation. Iron mobilization into enterocytes may be a vital protective mechanism in the hypoxic inflamed mucosa.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:1 January 2019
Deposited On:15 Mar 2019 07:04
Last Modified:17 Sep 2019 20:08
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2352-345X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2018.10.006
PubMed ID:30704983

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