Stroke prevalence is expected to increase in the next decades due to the aging of the Western population. Ischemic stroke (IS) shows an age- and sex-dependent distribution in which men represent the most affected population within 65 years of age, being passed by post-menopausal women in older age groups. Furthermore, a sexual dimorphism concerning risk factors, presentation and treatment of IS has been widely recognized. In order to address these phenomena, a number of issue have been raised involving both socio-economical and biological factors. The latter can be either dependent on sex hormones or due to intrinsic factors. Although women have poorer outcomes and are more likely to die after a cerebrovascular event, they are still underrepresented in clinical trials and this is mirrored by the lack of sex-tailored therapies. A greater effort is needed in the future to ensure improved treatment and quality of life to both sexes.