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Apolipoprotein A-I proteolysis in aortic valve stenosis: role of cathepsin S


Gebhard, C; Maafi, F; Stähli, B E; Dang, J; Nachar, W; de Oliveira Moraes, A B; Kernaleguen, A E; Lavoie, V; Mecteau, M; Mihalache-Avram, T; Shi, Y; Chabot-Blanchet, M; Busseuil, D; Rhainds, D; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, Jean-Claude (2018). Apolipoprotein A-I proteolysis in aortic valve stenosis: role of cathepsin S. Basic Research in Cardiology, 113(4):30.

Abstract

Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. Therapy based on apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins, results in AVS regression in experimental models. Nevertheless, apoA-I degradation by proteases might lead to suboptimal efficacy of such therapy. An activatable probe using a quenched fluorescently labeled full-length apoA-I protein was generated to assess apoA-I-degrading protease activity in plasma derived from 44 men and 20 women with severe AVS (age 65.0 ± 10.4 years) as well as from a rabbit model of AVS. In human and rabbit AVS plasma, apoA-I-degrading protease activity was significantly higher than in controls (humans: 0.038 ± 0.009 vs 0.022 ± 0.005 RFU/s, p < 0.0001; rabbits: 0.033 ± 0.016 vs 0.017 ± 0.005 RFU/s, p = 0.041). Through the use of protease inhibitors, we identified metalloproteinases (MMP) as exerting the most potent proteolytic effect on apoA-I in AVS rabbits (67%, p < 0.05 vs control), while the cysteine protease cathepsin S accounted for 54.2% of apoA-I degradation in human plasma (p < 0.05 vs control) with the maximum effect seen in women (68.8%, p < 0.05 vs men). Accordingly, cathepsin S activity correlated significantly with mean transaortic pressure gradient in women (r = 0.5, p = 0.04) but not in men (r = - 0.09, p = 0.60), and was a significant independent predictor of disease severity in women (standardized beta coefficient 0.832, p < 0.001) when tested in a linear regression analysis. ApoA-I proteolysis is increased in AVS. Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease.

Abstract

Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. Therapy based on apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins, results in AVS regression in experimental models. Nevertheless, apoA-I degradation by proteases might lead to suboptimal efficacy of such therapy. An activatable probe using a quenched fluorescently labeled full-length apoA-I protein was generated to assess apoA-I-degrading protease activity in plasma derived from 44 men and 20 women with severe AVS (age 65.0 ± 10.4 years) as well as from a rabbit model of AVS. In human and rabbit AVS plasma, apoA-I-degrading protease activity was significantly higher than in controls (humans: 0.038 ± 0.009 vs 0.022 ± 0.005 RFU/s, p < 0.0001; rabbits: 0.033 ± 0.016 vs 0.017 ± 0.005 RFU/s, p = 0.041). Through the use of protease inhibitors, we identified metalloproteinases (MMP) as exerting the most potent proteolytic effect on apoA-I in AVS rabbits (67%, p < 0.05 vs control), while the cysteine protease cathepsin S accounted for 54.2% of apoA-I degradation in human plasma (p < 0.05 vs control) with the maximum effect seen in women (68.8%, p < 0.05 vs men). Accordingly, cathepsin S activity correlated significantly with mean transaortic pressure gradient in women (r = 0.5, p = 0.04) but not in men (r = - 0.09, p = 0.60), and was a significant independent predictor of disease severity in women (standardized beta coefficient 0.832, p < 0.001) when tested in a linear regression analysis. ApoA-I proteolysis is increased in AVS. Targeting circulating cathepsin S may lead to new therapies for human aortic valve disease.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Cardiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:18 June 2018
Deposited On:28 Feb 2019 15:47
Last Modified:28 Feb 2019 15:47
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0300-8428
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00395-018-0689-7
PubMed ID:29915952

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