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Threshold Radii of Volatile-rich Planets


Lozovsky, M; Helled, R; Dorn, C; Venturini, J (2018). Threshold Radii of Volatile-rich Planets. The Astrophysical Journal, 866(1):13.

Abstract

Constraining the planetary composition is essential for exoplanetary characterization. In this paper, we use a statistical analysis to determine the characteristic maximum (threshold) radii for various compositions for exoplanets with masses up to 25 Earth masses (M ⊕). We confirm that most planets with radii larger than 1.6 Earth radii (R ⊕) are not rocky, and must consist of lighter elements, as found by previous studies. We find that planets with radii above 2.6 R ⊕ cannot be pure-water worlds, and must contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium (H–He). We find that planets with radii larger than about 3 R ⊕, 3.6 R ⊕, and 4.3 R ⊕ are expected to consist of 2%, 5%, and 10% of H–He, respectively. We investigate the sensitivity of the results to the assumed internal structure, the planetary temperature and albedo, and the accuracy of the determination of mass and radius. We show that the envelope's metallicity, the percentage of H–He, and the distribution of the elements play a significant role in the determination of the threshold radius. Finally, we conclude that, despite the degenerate nature of the problem, it is possible to put limits on the possible range of compositions for planets with well-measured mass and radius.

Abstract

Constraining the planetary composition is essential for exoplanetary characterization. In this paper, we use a statistical analysis to determine the characteristic maximum (threshold) radii for various compositions for exoplanets with masses up to 25 Earth masses (M ⊕). We confirm that most planets with radii larger than 1.6 Earth radii (R ⊕) are not rocky, and must consist of lighter elements, as found by previous studies. We find that planets with radii above 2.6 R ⊕ cannot be pure-water worlds, and must contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium (H–He). We find that planets with radii larger than about 3 R ⊕, 3.6 R ⊕, and 4.3 R ⊕ are expected to consist of 2%, 5%, and 10% of H–He, respectively. We investigate the sensitivity of the results to the assumed internal structure, the planetary temperature and albedo, and the accuracy of the determination of mass and radius. We show that the envelope's metallicity, the percentage of H–He, and the distribution of the elements play a significant role in the determination of the threshold radius. Finally, we conclude that, despite the degenerate nature of the problem, it is possible to put limits on the possible range of compositions for planets with well-measured mass and radius.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Uncontrolled Keywords:Space and Planetary Science, Astronomy and Astrophysics
Language:English
Date:10 October 2018
Deposited On:06 Mar 2019 13:52
Last Modified:17 Sep 2019 20:09
Publisher:IOP Publishing
ISSN:1538-4357
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aadd09

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