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Cell-to-cell Communication by Extracellular Vesicles: Focus on Microglia


Paolicelli, Rosa C; Bergamini, Giorgio; Rajendran, Lawrence (2019). Cell-to-cell Communication by Extracellular Vesicles: Focus on Microglia. Neuroscience, 405:148-157.

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are small, nano-to-micrometer vesicles that are released from cells. While initially observed in immune cells and reticulocytes as vesicles meant to remove archaic proteins, now they have been observed in almost all cell types of multicellular organisms. Growing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles, containing lipids, proteins and RNAs, represent an efficient way to transfer functional cargoes from one cell to another. In the central nervous system, the extensive cross-talk ongoing between neurons and glia, including microglia, the immune cells of the brain, takes advantage of secreted vesicles, which mediate intercellular communication over long range distance. Recent literature supports a critical role for extracellular vesicles in mediating complex and coordinated communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia, both in the healthy and in the diseased brain. In this review, we focus on the biogenesis and function of microglia-related extracellular vesicles and focus on their putative role in Alzheimer's disease pathology.

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are small, nano-to-micrometer vesicles that are released from cells. While initially observed in immune cells and reticulocytes as vesicles meant to remove archaic proteins, now they have been observed in almost all cell types of multicellular organisms. Growing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles, containing lipids, proteins and RNAs, represent an efficient way to transfer functional cargoes from one cell to another. In the central nervous system, the extensive cross-talk ongoing between neurons and glia, including microglia, the immune cells of the brain, takes advantage of secreted vesicles, which mediate intercellular communication over long range distance. Recent literature supports a critical role for extracellular vesicles in mediating complex and coordinated communication among neurons, astrocytes and microglia, both in the healthy and in the diseased brain. In this review, we focus on the biogenesis and function of microglia-related extracellular vesicles and focus on their putative role in Alzheimer's disease pathology.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, further contribution
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute for Regenerative Medicine (IREM)
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > General Neuroscience
Language:English
Date:1 May 2019
Deposited On:05 Mar 2019 15:22
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 10:01
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0306-4522
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2018.04.003
PubMed ID:29660443

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