In order to show the advantage and potential of propagation-based phase-contrast synchrotron imaging in vascular pathology research, we analyzed aortic medial ruptures in BAPN/AngII-infused mice, a mouse model for aortic dissection. Ascending and thoraco-abdominal samples from n = 3 control animals and n = 10 BAPN/AngII-infused mice (after 3, 7 and 14 days of infusion, total of 24 samples) were scanned. A steep increase in the number of ruptures was already noted after 3 days of BAPN/AngII-infusion. The largest ruptures were found at the latest time points. 133 ruptures affected only the first lamella while 135 ruptures affected multiple layers. Medial ruptures through all lamellar layers, leading to false channel formation and intramural hematoma, occurred only in the thoraco-abdominal aorta and interlamellar hematoma formation in the ascending aorta could be directly related to ruptures of the innermost lamellae. The advantages of this technique are (i) ultra-high resolution that allows to visualize the individual elastic lamellae in the aorta; (ii) quantitative and qualitative analysis of medial ruptures; (iii) 3D analysis of the complete aorta; (iv) high contrast for qualitative information extraction, reducing the need for histology coupes; (v) earlier detection of (micro-) ruptures.