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The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) LysM receptor kinases VvLYK1-1 and VvLYK1-2 mediate chitooligosaccharide-triggered immunity


Brulé, Daphnée; Villano, Clizia; Davies, Laura J; Trdá, Lucie; Claverie, Justine; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Chiltz, Annick; Adrian, Marielle; Darblade, Benoît; Tornero, Pablo; Stransfeld, Lena; Boutrot, Freddy; Zipfel, Cyril; Dry, Ian B; Poinssot, Benoit (2019). The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) LysM receptor kinases VvLYK1-1 and VvLYK1-2 mediate chitooligosaccharide-triggered immunity. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 17(4):812-825.

Abstract

Chitin, a major component of fungal cell walls, is a well‐known pathogen‐associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers defense responses in several mammal and plant species. Here, we show that two chitooligosaccharides, chitin and chitosan, act as PAMPs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) as they elicit immune signalling events, defense gene expression and resistance against fungal diseases. To identify their cognate receptors, the grapevine family of LysM receptor kinases (LysM‐RKs) was annotated and their gene expression profiles were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis clearly distinguished three V. vinifera LysM‐RKs (VvLYKs) located in the same clade as the Arabidopsis CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (AtCERK1), which mediates chitin‐induced immune responses. The Arabidopsis mutant Atcerk1, impaired in chitin perception, was transformed with these three putative orthologous genes encoding VvLYK1‐1, ‐2, or ‐3 to determine if they would complement the loss of AtCERK1 function. Our results provide evidence that VvLYK1‐1 and VvLYK1‐2, but not VvLYK1‐3, functionally complement the Atcerk1 mutant by restoring chitooligosaccharide‐induced MAPK activation and immune gene expression. Moreover, expression of VvLYK1‐1 in Atcerk1 restored penetration resistance to the non‐adapted grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator). On the whole, our results indicate that the grapevine VvLYK1‐1 and VvLYK1‐2 participate in chitin‐ and chitosan‐triggered immunity and that VvLYK1‐1 plays an important role in basal resistance against E. necator.

Abstract

Chitin, a major component of fungal cell walls, is a well‐known pathogen‐associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that triggers defense responses in several mammal and plant species. Here, we show that two chitooligosaccharides, chitin and chitosan, act as PAMPs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) as they elicit immune signalling events, defense gene expression and resistance against fungal diseases. To identify their cognate receptors, the grapevine family of LysM receptor kinases (LysM‐RKs) was annotated and their gene expression profiles were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis clearly distinguished three V. vinifera LysM‐RKs (VvLYKs) located in the same clade as the Arabidopsis CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (AtCERK1), which mediates chitin‐induced immune responses. The Arabidopsis mutant Atcerk1, impaired in chitin perception, was transformed with these three putative orthologous genes encoding VvLYK1‐1, ‐2, or ‐3 to determine if they would complement the loss of AtCERK1 function. Our results provide evidence that VvLYK1‐1 and VvLYK1‐2, but not VvLYK1‐3, functionally complement the Atcerk1 mutant by restoring chitooligosaccharide‐induced MAPK activation and immune gene expression. Moreover, expression of VvLYK1‐1 in Atcerk1 restored penetration resistance to the non‐adapted grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator). On the whole, our results indicate that the grapevine VvLYK1‐1 and VvLYK1‐2 participate in chitin‐ and chitosan‐triggered immunity and that VvLYK1‐1 plays an important role in basal resistance against E. necator.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Department of Plant and Microbial Biology
07 Faculty of Science > Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:580 Plants (Botany)
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Biotechnology
Life Sciences > Agronomy and Crop Science
Life Sciences > Plant Science
Uncontrolled Keywords:Biotechnology, Agronomy and Crop Science, Plant Science
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:06 Mar 2019 15:17
Last Modified:15 Apr 2020 23:18
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1467-7644
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13017

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